Advertisement

Mechanically-Induced Morphological Changes in the Organ of Corti

  • Roger P. Hamernik
  • George Turrentine
  • Michele Roberto
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 111)

Abstract

Acute exposures to high-level noise impulses damage the cochlea via mechanical mechanisms that are associated with excessive displacements and stresses developed in the delicate epithelial tissues of the organ of Corti. Such damage has been discussed in the literaure a number of times, and an especially clear description was provided by Davis [1]. Davis and his colleagues used continuous noise at levels of nearly 150 dB SPL at the eardrum. They noted that the Hensen cell attachments represent a mechanically weak link in the structural organization of the organ of Corti. This result was confirmed by Beagley [2], who illustrated the separation of cell junctions between the Deiter and Hensen cells following overstimulation. Since then, others (notably Spoendlin [3] and Voldrich [4]), also using high levels of continuous noise, have demonstrated lesions on the basilar membrane of an equivocal mechanical origin, including rupture of the basilar membrane and Reissners membrane. Spoendlin suggested intensities of around 125 dB SPL as the threshold for mechanically-induced lesions as opposed to metabolically-induced damage. However, the dependance of this rms sound pressure on the exposure duration is not clear. Spoendlin is in agreement with Davis and Beagley concerning the susceptibility to acoustic trauma of the Hensen cell attachments, but he further implicates the pillar cells and the medial attachments of the inner hair cell cuticular area as, “weak spots.” This paper attempts to provide a clear documentation of the morphological sequence of events which is eventually responsible for producing massive structural damage to the organ of Corti. Using blast waves as a vehicle, we will further attempt to qualitatively illustrate a fundamental difference in the way in which continuous and impulse noise may need to be evaluated when assessing the potential for producing trauma.

Keywords

Hair Cell Blast Wave Outer Hair Cell Basilar Membrane Pillar Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. Davis, Acoustic trauma in the guinea pig, Wright Air Development Center, WADC TR 53-58 (1953).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. A. Beagley, Acoustic trauma in the guinea pig — Part I, Acta Otolaryngol., 60:437 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    H. H. Spoedlin, anatomical changes following various noise exposures, in: “Effects of Noise on Hearing,” D. Henderson, R. P. Hamernik. D. S. Dosanjh and J. H. Mills, eds., Raven Press, New York (1976).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Voldrich, Experimental acoustic trauma — Part I, Acta Otolaryngol., 74:392 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Engstron, H. W. Ades and A. Anderson, Structural pattern of the organ of Corti, Almquist and Wiksel, Stockholm (1966).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. P. Hamernik, D. S. Dosanjh and D. Henderson, Shock tube applicatins in bioacoustics research, in: “Recent Developments in Shock Tube Research,” D. Bershader and W. Griffith, eds., Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, (1973).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. P. Hamernik, G. Turrentine, M. Roberto, R. J. Salvi and D. Henderson, Anatomical correlates of impulse noise-induced mechanical damage in the cochlea, Hearing Res., 13:229 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. P. Hamernik, G. Turrentine and C. G. Wright, Surface morphology of the inner sulcus and related epithelial cells of the cochlea following acoustic trauma, Hearing Res., 16:143 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    B. A. Bohne and K. D. Rabbitt, Holes in the reticular lamina after noise exposure: Implication for continuing damage in the organ of Corti, Hearing Res., 11:41 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. J. Patterson, I. M. Lomba-Gautier, D. L. Curd, R. P. Hamernik, R. J. Salvi, C. E. Hargett and G. Turrentine, The effect of impulse intensity and the number of impulses on hearing and cochlear pathology in chinchilla, USAARL Report No. 85-3 (1985).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Henderson, R. P. Hamernik and R. W. Sitler, Audiometric and histological correlates of exposure to 1 msec noise impulses in the chinchilla, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 56:1210 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. B. Margolis and L. D. Bergelson, Lipid-cell interactions, Exp. Cell Res., 199:145 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    F. J. Martin and R. C. MacDonald, Lipid vesicle-cell interactions, J. Cell Bio., 70:515–526 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. S. Chen, A. Del Fa, A. Diluzio and P. Calissano, Liposome-induced morphological differentiation of murine neuroblastoma, Nature (London), 263:604–606 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    G. A. Manley and A. Kronester-Frei, The electrophysiological profile of the organ of Corti, in: Psychophysical, Physiological and Behavioral Studies in Hearing, G. Van den Brink and F. A. Bilsen, eds., Delft University Press, Netherlands, (1980).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. W. Young, On the energy transported with a sound pulse, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 47:441 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger P. Hamernik
    • 1
    • 2
  • George Turrentine
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michele Roberto
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Texas-DallasDallasUSA
  2. 2.Cattedra di Bioacustica PoliclinicoBariItaly

Personalised recommendations