Effects of Blast Waves on Nonauditory Epithelial Tissues
Injuries in mammals exposed to various forms of blast have been recognized for many years, at least as early as the 1920’s [1,2]. Classically, blast injury was considered to be an injury resulting from direct exposure to an explosion, originally from highly explosive, conventional type weapons. Later, blast injury was included as one of the potential casualty-producing effects of nuclear weapons . Blast injury was known by a number of terms, including “air concussion,” “blast concussion,” “wind of shot,” “shell concussion,” “blast chest,” “bomb blast,” and “shell shock,” in the period before World War II , but these terms are seldom used in contemporary reports. A comprehensive report and review of the pathologic changes associated with blast injury was prepared by Chiffelle . This report separated the direct effects, those associated with the blast wave, from indirect effects. Secondary effects are injuries which result from the victim being struck by flying objects energized by the blast. Tertiary effects are injuries which result from the victim being translated and thrown against firm, stationary objectives. Miscellaneous effects are those injuries which occur following exposure to dusts or gases generated by the explosion, direct thermal burns in conjunction with the explosion, and thermal burns resulting from secondary fires ignited by the primary blast . This report will be limited to a consideration of the primary effects of blast on mammalian tissues.
KeywordsExposure Group Blast Wave Range Control Blast Injury Blast Exposure
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