Advertisement

The Nephritogenic Immune Response and Renal Immunopathogenesis

A Progress Report
  • Michael D. Clayman
  • Carl S. Goldstein
  • Eric G. Neilson

Abstract

It is generally agreed that the immune system plays a central role in many forms of renal injury. Hallmark studies of Dixon et al. (1961) emphasized the importance of antibodies and immune complex deposition in glomerular disease processes. A wealth of data have subsequently accumulated which lend support to the concept that humoral immunity is an intrinsic component of many nephritogenic immune responses. The conceptual framework for understanding renal immunology, as a result, has been largely defined in terms of antibody production, renal deposition, and subsequent immune amplification processes.

Keywords

Immune Complex Glomerular Basement Membrane Interstitial Nephritis Brown Norway Immune Complex Deposition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdou, N. I., Wall, H., Lindsley, H. B., Halsey, J. F., and Suzuki, T., 1981, Network theory in autoimmunity: In vitro suppression of serum anti-DNA antibody binding to DNA by anti-idiotype antibody in systemic lupus erythematosus, J. Clin. Invest. 67: 1297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrahamson, D. R., and Caulfield, J. P., 1982, Proteinuria and structural alterations in rat glomerular basement membranes induced by intravenously injected anti-laminin immunoglobulin G, J. Exp. Med. 156: 128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adams, C., Thova, Y., Ronco, P., Verroust, P., Tovey, M., and Motel-Maroger, L., 1980, The effect of exogenous interferon: acceleration of autoimmune and renal diseases in (N2B/W)F1 mice, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 40: 373.Google Scholar
  4. Adelman, N. B., Watleng, D. L., and McDevitt, H. O., 1983, Treatment of (NZB x NZW)F2 disease with anti-I-A monoclonal antibodies, J. Exp. Med. 158: 1350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Andres, G., Brentjens, J., Kohli, R., Anthone, R., Anthone, S., Baliah, T., Montes, M., Mookerjee, B. K., Prezyna, A., Sepulveda, M., Venuto, R., and Elwood, C., 1978, Histology of human tubulo-interstitial nephritis associated with antibodies to renal basement membranes, Kidney Int. 13: 480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Atkins, R. C., Holdsworth, S. R., Hancock, W. W., Thompson, N. M., and Glasgow, E. F., 1982, Cellular immune mechanisms in human glomerulonephritis: The role of mononuclear leukocytes, Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 5: 269.Google Scholar
  7. Banda, M. J., Knighton, D. R., Hunt, T. K., and Werb, Z., 1982, Isolation of a non-mitogenic angiogenesis factor from wound fluid, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 7773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Banks, K. L., and Henson, J. B., 1972, Immunologically mediated glomerulitis of horses. II. Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody and other mechanisms in spontaneous disease, Lab. Invest. 26: 708.Google Scholar
  9. Barabas, A. Z., and Lannigan, R., 1974, Induction of an autologous immune-complex glomerulonephritis in the rat by intravenous injection of heterologous anti-rat kidney tubular antibody. I. Production of chronic progressive immune complex glomerulonephritis, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 55: 47.Google Scholar
  10. Barcelli, U., Rademacher, R., Ooi, Y. M., and Ooi, B. S., 1981, Modification of glomerular immune complex deposition in mice by activation of the reticuloendothelial system, J. Clin. Invest. 67: 20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Baron, S., and Diazani, F., 1977, General considerations of the interferon system, Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 35: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Beale, M. G., Hoffstein, P. E., Robson, A. M., and MacDermott, R. P., 1980, Inhibitory factors of lymphocyte transformation in sera from patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome, Clin. Naphrol. 13: 271.Google Scholar
  13. Becker, G. J., Hancock, W. W., Stow, J. L., Glasgow, E. F., Atkins, R. C., and Thomson, N. M., 1982, Involvement of the macrophage in experimental chronic immune complex glomerulonephritis, Nephron 32: 227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Benacerraf, B., and McDevitt, H. O., 1972, Histocompatibility defined immune response genes, Science 175: 273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bergstein, J. M., and Litman, N., 1975, Interstitial nephritis with anti-tubular basement membrane antibody, N. Engl. J. Med. 292: 875.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Berthoux, F. C., Gagne, A., Sabatier, J. C, Ducret, F., LePetit, J. C., Marcellin, M., Mercier, B., and Prezard, C. P., 1978, HLA-BW 35 and mesangial IgA glomerulonephritis, N. Engl. J. Med. 298: 1034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bhan, A. K., Schneeberger, E., Collins, A., and McCluskey, R. T., 1978, Evidence for a pathogenic role of a cell-mediated immune mechanism in experimental glomerulonephritis, J. Exp. Med. 148: 246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bhan, A. K., Collins, A., Schneeberger, E., and McCluskey, R. T., 1979, A cell-mediated reaction against glomerular-bound immune complexes, J. Exp. Med. 150: 1410.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bianco, C., 1983, Fibrin, fibronectin and macrophages, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 408: 602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Border, W. A., Lehman, D. H., Egan, J. D., Sass, H. J., Glade, J. E., and Wilson, C. B., 1974, Antitubular basement membrane antibodies in methicillin-associated interstitial nephritis, N. Engl. J. Med. 291: 381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brettle, R., Peters, D. K., and Batchelor, J. R., 1978, Mesangial IgA glomerulonephritis and HLA antigens, N. Engl. J. Med. 299: 200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Brown, C. A., Carey, K., and Colvin, R. B., 1979, Inhibition of autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis in guinea pigs by heterologous antisera containing anti-idiotype antibodies, J. Immunol. 123: 2102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bruneau, C., and Benveniste, J., 1979, Circulating DNA:anti-DNA complexes in systemic lupus erythematosus: Detection and characterization by ultracentrifugation, J. Clin. Invest. 64: 191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Cantor, H., and Gershon, R. K., 1979, Immunological circuits: Cellular composition, Fed. Proc. 38: 2058.Google Scholar
  25. Carnegie, P. R., and Mackay, J. R., 1975, Vulnerability of cell surface receptors to autoimmune reactions, Lancet 2: 684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Cattell, V., and Arlidge, S., 1981, The origin of proliferating cells in the glomerulus and Bowman’s capsule in nephrotoxic serum nephritis: Effects of unilateral renal irradiation, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 62: 669.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen, P. L., and Eisenberg, R. A., 1982, Anti-idiotypic antibodies to the Coombs antibody in NZB Fi mice, J. Exp. Med. 156: 173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Colasanti, G., Moran, J., Bellini, A., and D’Amico, G., 1980, Significance of glomerular C3b receptors in human renal diseases, Renal Physiol. 3: 387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Collins, A. B., Andres, G. A., and McCluskey, R. T., 1981, Lack of evidence for a role of renal tubular antigen in human membranous glomerulonephritis, Nephron 27: 297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Colvin, R. B., 1983, Fibrinogen-fibrin interactions with fibroblasts and macrophages, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 408: 621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cook, A., Lydyard, P. M., and Roitt, I. M., 1983, Mechanisms of autoimmunity: a role for cross-reactive idiotypes, Immunol. Today 4: 170.Google Scholar
  32. Courtoy, P. J., Kanwar, Y. S., Hynes, R. O., and Farquhar, M. G., 1980, Fibronectin localization in the rat glomerulus, J. Cell Biol 87: 691.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Couser, W. G., 1981, What are circulating immune complexes doing in glomerulonephritis?, N. Engl. J. Med. 304: 1230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Couser, W. G., and Salant, D. J., 1980, In situ immune complex formation and glomerular injury, Kidney Int. 17: 1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Couser, W. G., Steinmuller, D. R., Stilmant, M. M., Salant, D. J., and Lowenstein, L. M., 1978, Experimental glomerulonephritis in the isolated perfused rat kidney, J. Clin. Invest. 62: 1275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Datta, S. K., Owen, F. L., Womack, J. E., and Riblet, R. J., 1982, Analysis of recombinant inbred lines derived from autoimmune (NZB) and “high leukemia” (C58) strains: Independent mucigenic systems control B cell hyperactivity, retrovirus expression, and autoimmunity, J. Immunol 129: 1539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Davies, H. S., and Butcher, G. W., 1978, Kidney alloantigens determined by two regions of the rat major histocompatibility complex, Immunogenetics 6: 171.Google Scholar
  38. DeLustro, F., and LeRoy, E. C., 1982, Characterization of the release of human monocyte regulators of fibroblast proliferation, J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 31: 295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. DeLustro, F., Sherer, G. K., and LeRoy, E. C., 1980, Human monocyte stimulation of fibroblast growth by a soluble mediator(s), J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 28: 519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. DeMaeyer, E., and DeMayer-Guignard, J., 1980, Interferons and the immune system, in: The Immune System: Function and Therapy of Dysfunction ( G. Doria and A. Eshkol, eds.), pp. 213–225, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  41. Demaine, A. G., Vaughan, R. W., and Welsn, K. I., 1982, Immunoglobulin (GM) allotype frequencies in patients with renal failure, Transplantation 34: 153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Diegelmann, R. F., Cohen, I. K., and Kaplan, A. M., 1982, Effect of macrophages on fibroblast DNA synthesis and proliferation, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 169: 445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Dixon, A. J., Burns, J., Dunnill, M. S., and McGee, J., 1980, Distribution of fibronectin in normal and diseased human kidneys, J. Clin. Pathol. 33: 1021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Dixon, F. J., Feldman, J. D., and Vasquez, J. J., 1961, Experimental glomerulonephritis: The pathogenesis of a laboratory model resembling the spectrum of human glomerulonephritis, J. Exp. Med. 113: 899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Doherty, P. C., and Zinkernagel, R. M., 1974, Restriction of in vitro T cell-mediated cytotoxicity in lymphocytic choriomeningitis within a syngeneic or semiallogeneic system, Nature (London) 248: 701.Google Scholar
  46. Dorf, M. E., 1981, Genetic control of immune responsiveness, in: The Role of the Major Histocompatibility Complex in Immunobiology ( M. E. Dorf, ed.), pp. 221–254, Garland STPM Press, New York.Google Scholar
  47. Douglas, M. F. S., Rabideau, D. P., Schwartz, M. M., and Lewis, E. J., 1981, Evidence of autologous immune-complex nephritis, N. Engl. J. Med. 305: 1326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Druet, E., Sapin, C., Gunther, E., Feingold, N., and Druet, P., 1977, Mercuric chloride-induced anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in the rat, Eur. J. Immunol. 7: 348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Dubois, C. H., Foidart, J. B., Hautier, M. B., Dechenne, C. A., Lemaire, M. J., and Mahieu, P. R., 1981, Proliferative glomerulonephritis in rats: Evidence that mononuclear phagocytes infiltrating the glomeruli stimulate the proliferation of endothelial and mesangial cells, Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 11: 91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Eagen, J. W., and Lewis, E. J., 1977, Glomerulopathies of neoplasia, Kidney Int. 11: 297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Edgington, T. S., Glassock, R. J., and Dixon, F. J., 1968, Autologous immune complex nephritis induced with renal tubular antigen. I. Identification and isolation of the pathogenetic antigen, J. Exp. Med. 127: 555.Google Scholar
  52. Edwards, R. L., and Rickles, F. R., 1978, Delayed hypersensitivity in man: Effects of systemic anti-coagulation, Science 200: 541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Edwards, R. L., and Rickles, F. R., 1980, The role of monocyte tissue factor in the immune response, Lymphokine Rep. 1: 181.Google Scholar
  54. Edwards, R. L., Rickles, F. R., and Bogrove, A. M., 1979, Mononuclear cell tissue factor: Cell of origin and requirements for activation, Blood 54: 359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Egido, J., Blasco, R., Sancho, J., Lozaro, L., Sánchez-Crespo, M., and Hernando, L., 1982, Increased rates of polymeric IgA synthesis by circulating lymphoid cells in IgA mesangial glomerulonephritis, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 47: 309.Google Scholar
  56. Egido, J., Sancho, J., Blasco, R., Rivera, F., and Hernando, L., 1983, The immunopathogenetic aspects of IgA nephropathy, Adv. Naphrol. 12: 103.Google Scholar
  57. Farquhar, M. G., and Kanwar, Y. S., 1983, Functional organization of the glomerulus: Presence of glycosaminoglycans (proteoglycans) in the glomerular basement membrane, in: Immune Mechanisms in Renal Disease ( N. B. Cummings, A. F. Michael, and C. B. Wilson, eds.), pp. 1–35, Plenum Medical Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  58. Fillit, H. M., and Zabriskie, J. B., 1982, Cellular immunity in glomerulonephritis, Am. J. Pathol. 109: 227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fillit, H. M., Villareal, H. J., and Zabriskie, J. B., 1983, The role of streptococcal and glomerular basement membrane antigens in glomerulonephritis, in: Immune Mechanisms in Renal Disease ( N. B. Cummings, A. F. Michael, and C. B. Wilson, eds.), pp. 339–418, Plenum Medical Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  60. Finbloom, D. S., and Plotz, P. H., 1979, Studies of reticuloendothelial function in the mouse with model immune complexes. I. Serum clearance and tissue uptake in normal C3H mice, J. Immunol 123: 1594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Fish, A. J., Carmody, K. M., Schiffer, M. S., and Michael, A. F., 1983, Glomerular basement membrane antigens, in: Immune Mechanisms in Renal Disease ( N. B. Cummings, A. F. Michael, and C. B. Wilson, eds.), pp. 71–81, Plenum Medical Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  62. Fletcher, A. P., Neuberger, A., and Ratcliff, W. A., 1970, Tamm-Horsfall urinary glycoprotein: The subunit structure, Biochem. J. 120: 425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ford, P. M., 1975, The effect of manipulation of reticuloendothelial system activity on glomerular deposition of aggregated protein and immune complexes in two different strains of mice, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 56: 523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Frank, M. M., Hamburger, M. I., Lawley, T. J., Kimberly, R. P., and Plotz, P. H., 1979, Defective reticuloendothelial system Fc-receptor function in systemic lupus erythematosus, N. Engl. J. Med. 300: 518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Friedman, J., Hoyer, J. R., and Seiler, M. W., 1982, Formation and clearance of tubulointerstitial immune complexes in kidneys of rats immunized with heterologous antisera to Tamm-Horsfall protein, Kidney Int. 21: 575.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Fujibayashi, T., Hooks, J. J., and Notkins, A. L., 1975, Production of interferon by immune lymphocytes exposed to herpes simplex virus-antibody complexes, J. Immunol. 115: 1191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Garovoy, M. R., 1980, Idiopathic membranous glomerulopathy: An HLA associated disease, in: Histocompatibility Testing ( P. I. Terasaki, ed.), pp. 673–680, UCLA Press, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  68. Garovoy, M. R., 1982, Immunogenetic associations in nephrotic states, in: Contemporary Issues in Nephrology, Volume 9 ( B. M. Brenner and J. H. Stein, eds.), pp. 259–282, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  69. Gasser, D. L., Baloyannus, S. J., and Gonatas, N. K., 1978, Influence of MHC-linked and non-MHC linked genes on susceptibility of rats to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, in: Genetic Control of Autoimmune Disease ( N. R. Rose, P. E. Bigazzi, and N. L. Warner, eds.), pp. 355–364, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  70. Geha, R., 1983, Presence of circulating anti-idiotype bearing cells after booster immunization with tetanus toxoid (TT) and inhibition of anti-TT antibody synthesis by auto-anti-idiotypic antibody, J. Immunol. 130: 1634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Gelfand, M. C., Shin, M. L., Nagle, R. B., Green, I., and Frank, M. M., 1976, The glomerular complement receptor in immunologically mediated renal glomerular injury, N. Engl. J. Med. 295: 10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Gelfand, M. C., Frank, M. M., Green, I., and Shin, M. L., 1979, Binding sites for immune complexes containing IgG in the renal interstitium, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 13: 19.Google Scholar
  73. Germuth, F. G., 1953, A comparative and immunologic study in rabbits of induced hypersensitivity of the serum sickness type, J. Exp. Med. 97: 257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Glenn, K. C., and Ross, R. 1981, Human monocyte-derived growth factor(s) for mesenchymal cells: Activation of secretion by endotoxin and concanavalin A, Cell 25: 603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Golbus, S., and Wilson, C. B., 1979, Experimental glomerulonephritis induced by in situ formation of immune complexes in glomerular capillary wall, Kidney Int. 16: 148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Goldmann, M., Rose, L. M., Hochmann, A., and Lambert, P. H., 1982, Deposition of idiotype-anti-idiotype immune complexes in renal glomeruli after polyclonal B cell activation, J. Exp. Med. 155: 1385.Google Scholar
  77. Gonwa, T. A., Picker, L. J., Raff, H. V., Goyert, S. M., Silver, S., and Stobo, J. D., 1983, Antigen-presenting capabilities of human monocytes correlate with their expression of HLA-DS, an la determinant distinct from HLA-DR, J. Immunol. 130: 706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Gorzynski, T. J., and David, C. S., 1983, Immune-response gene-associated antigens (Ia/DR): Structure and function in immunologically related diseases, Mayo Clin. Proc. 58: 547.Google Scholar
  79. Granelli-Piperno, A., Vasoalli, J. D., Perch, E., 1977, Secretion of plasminogen activator by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Modulation by glucocorticoids and other effectors. J. Exp. Med. 146: 1693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Greenberg, G. B., and Hunt, T. K., 1978, The proliferative response in vitro of vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells exposed to wound fluids and macrophages, J. Cell. Physiol. 97: 353.Google Scholar
  81. Gresser, I., Morel-Maroger, L., Maury, C., Tovey, M. G., and Pontillon, F., 1976, Progressive glomerulonephritis in mice treated with interferon preparations at birth, Nature (London) 263: 420.Google Scholar
  82. Gresser, I., Morel-Maroger, L., Verroust, P., Riviere, Y., and Guillon, J. C., 1978, Anti-interferon globulin inhibits the development of glomerulonephritis in mice infected at birth with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75: 3413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Griffin, F. M., 1982, Mononuclear cell phagocytic mechanisms and host defense, in: Advances in Host Defense Mechanisms, Volume 1 ( J. I. Gallin and A. S. Fauci, eds.), pp. 31–55, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  84. Hahn, B. H., and Ebling, F. M., 1983, Suppression of NZB/NZW murine nephritis by administration of a syngeneic monoclonal antibody to DNA: Possible role of anti-idiotypic antibodies, J. Clin. Invest. 71: 1728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Harmon, W. E., Grupe, W. E., and Parkman, R., 1980, Control of autologous immune complex nephritis. I. Suppression of the disease in the presence of T cell sensitization, J. Immunol. 124: 1034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Harry, T., Bryant, D., Coles, G. A., Davies, M., and Fortt, W., 1982, The detection of monocytes in human renal biopsies: A prospective study, Clin. Nephrol. 18: 29.Google Scholar
  87. Hart, D. N. J., and Fabre, J. W., 1981, Major histocompatibility complex antigens in rat kidney, ureter, and bladder, Transplantation 31: 318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Hart, D. N. J., Fuggle, S. V., Williams, K. A., Fabre, J. W., Trug, A., and Mours, P. J., 1981, Localization of HLA-ABC and DR antigens in human kidney, Transplantation 31: 428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Hattler, B. G., Rocklin, R. E., Ward, P. A., and Rickles, F. R., 1973, Functional features of lymphocytes recovered from a human renal allograft, Cell. Immunol. 9: 289.Google Scholar
  90. Hau, T., Adrenholz, D. H., Simmons, R. L., 1979, Secondary bacterial peutourtis: The biological basis on treatment, Curr. Prob. Surg. 16: 5.Google Scholar
  91. Helin, H., and Edgington, T. S., 1983, Allogeneic induction of the human T cell-restricted monocyte procoagulant response is rapid and is elicited by HLA-DR, J. Exp. Med. 158: 962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Herberman, R. B., Djeu, J. Y., Kay, H. D., Ortaldo, J. R., Riccardi, C., Bonnard, G. D., Holden, H. T., Fognani, R., Santoni, A., and Puccetti, P., 1979, Natural killer cells: Characteristics and regulation of activity, Immunol. Rev. 44: 43.Google Scholar
  93. Heymann, W., Hackel, D. B., Harwood, S., Wilson, S. G. F., and Hunter, J. L. P., 1959, Production of nephrotic syndrome in rats by Freund’s adjuvant and kidney suspensions, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 110: 660.Google Scholar
  94. Hoffsten, P. E., Villalobos, R., Hill, C., and Klahr, S., 1977, T-cell deficiency in immune complex glomerulonephritis, Kidney Int. 11: 318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Hoffsten, P. E., Swerdlin, A., Bartell, M., Hill, C. L., Venverloh, J., Brotherson, K., and Klahr, S., 1979, Reticuloendothelial and mesangial function in murine immune complex glomerulonephritis, Kidney Int. 15: 144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Hogg, N., 1983, Human monocytes are associated with the formation of fibrin, J. Exp. Med. 157: 473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Holdsworth, S. R., 1983, Fc-dependence of macrophage accumulation and subsequent injury in experimental glomerulonephritis, J. Immunol. 130: 735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Holdsworth, S. R., Thompson, N. M., Glasgow, E. F., and Atkins, R. C., 1979a, The effect of defibrination on macrophage participation in rabbit nephrotoxic nephritis: Studies using glomerular culture and electron microscopy, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 37: 38.Google Scholar
  99. Holdsworth, S. R., Golbus, S. M., and Wilson, C. B., 1979b, Characterization of collagenase solubilized human glomerular basement membrane antigens reacting with human antibodies, Kidney Int. 16: 797a.Google Scholar
  100. Holdsworth, S. R., Neale, T. J., and Wilson, C. B., 1980a, The participation of macrophages and monocytes in experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 15: 510.Google Scholar
  101. Holdsworth, S. R., Allen, D. E., Thompson, N. M., Glasgow, E. F., and Atkins, R. C., 1980b, Histochemistry of glomerular cells in animal models of crescentic glomerulonephritis, Pathology 12: 339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Holdsworth, S. R., Neale, T. J., and Wilson, C. B., 1981, Abrogation of macrophage-dependent injury in experimental glomerulonephritis in the rabbit, J. Clin. Invest. 68: 686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Hood, L., Steinmetz, M., and Malissen, B., 1983, Genes of the major histocompatibility complex of the mouse, Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1: 529.Google Scholar
  104. Hoyer, J. R., 1980, Tubulointerstitial immune nephritis in rats immunized with Tamm-Horsfall protein, Kidney Int. 17: 284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Hoyer, J. R., Friedman, J., and Seiler, M. W., 1983, Autoimmunity to Tamm-Horsfall protein, in: Immune Mechanisms in Renal Disease ( N. B. Cummings, A. F. Michael, and C. B. Wilson, eds.), pp. 295–304, Plenum Medical Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  106. Hume, D. A., and Gordon, S., 1983, Mononuclear phagocyte system of the mouse defined by immunohistochemical localization of antigen F4/80: Identification of resident macrophages in renal medullary and cortical interstitium and the juxtaglomerular complex, J. Exp. Med. 157: 1704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Hunsicker, L. G., Shearer, T. P., Plattner, S. B., and Weisenburger, D., 1979, The role of monocytes in serum sickness nephritis, J. Exp. Med. 150: 413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Hunt, J. S., McGiven, A. R., Jackson, A. E., and Day, W. A., 1980, Macrophages in NZB/NZW mouse glomerular disease, Renal Physiol. 3: 368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Hyman, L. R., Colvin, R. B., and Steinberg, A. D., 1976a, Immunopathogenesis of autoimmune tubulo-interstitial nephritis. I. Demonstration of differential susceptibility in strain II and strain XIII guinea pigs, J. Immunol. 116: 327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Hyman, L. R., Steinberg, A. D., Colvin, R. B., and Bernard, E. F., 1976b, Immunopathogenesis of autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis. II. Role of an immune response gene linked to the major histocompatibility complex, J. Immunol. 117: 1894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Izui, S., Lambert, P. H., and Miescher, P. A., 1976, In vitro demonstration of a particular affinity of glomerular basement membrane and collagen for DNA: A possible basis for a local formation of DNA-anti-DNA complexes in systemic lupus erythematosus, J. Exp. Med. 144: 428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Izui, S., Lambert, P. H., Fournie, G. J., Turler, H., and Miescher, P. A., 1977, Features of systemic lupus erythematosus in mice injected with bacterial lipopolysaccharides: Identification of circulating DNA and renal localization of DNA-anti-DNA complexes, J. Exp. Med. 145: 1115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Jerne, N. K., 1974, Towards a network theory of the immune system, Ann. Immunol. (Inst. Pasteur) 125C: 373.Google Scholar
  114. Jimenez, S. A., McArthur, W., and Rosenbloom, J., 1979, Inhibition of collagen synthesis by mononuclear cell supernatants, J. Exp. Med. 150: 1421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Jothy, S., and Sawka, R. J., 1981, Presence of monocytes in systemic lupus erythematosus-associated glomerulonephritis: Marker study and significance, Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 105: 590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Kashwabara, H., Shishido, H., Yokoyama, T., and Mryayuna, T., 1980, HLA in IgA nephropathy, Tissue Antigen 16: 411.Google Scholar
  117. Kazatchkine, M. D., Fearon, D. T., Appay, M. D., Mandet, C., and Bariety, J., 1982, Immunohistochemical study of the human glomerular C3b receptor in normal kidney and in seventy-five cases of renal diseases, J. Clin. Invest. 69: 900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Kefalides, N. A., 1983, The molecular structure of basement membranes as it relates to function, in: Immune Mechanisms in Renal Disease ( N. B. Cummings, A. F. Michael, and C. B. Wilson, eds.), pp. 47–69, Plenum Medical Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  119. Kefalides, N. A., Alper, R., and Clark, C. C., 1979, Biochemistry and metabolism of basement membranes, Int. Rev. Cytol. 60: 167.Google Scholar
  120. Kerjaschki, D., and Farquhar, M. G., 1982, The pathogenic antigen of Heymann nephritis is a membrane glycoprotein of the renal proximal tubule brush border, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 5557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Kerjaschki, D., and Farquhar, M. G., 1983, Immunocytochemical localization of the Heymann nephritis antigen (GP 330) in glomerular epithelial cells of normal Lewis rats, J. Exp. Med. 157: 667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Klein, J., Figueroa, F., and Nagy, Z., 1983, Genetics of the major histocompatibility complex: The final act, Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1: 119.Google Scholar
  123. Knighton, D. R., Oredsson, S., Banda, M. J., Werb, Z., and Hunt, T. K., 1982, Hypoxia stimulates production of angiogenesis factor, plasminogen activator and growth factor by rabbit bone marrow macrophages, Fed. Proc. 41: 270.Google Scholar
  124. Korn, J. H., 1983, Fibroblast prostaglandin E2 synthesis, J. Clin. Invest. 71: 1240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Korn, J. H., Halushka, P. V., and LeRoy, E. C., 1980, Mononuclear cell modulation of connective tissue function: Suppression of fibroblast growth by stimulation of endogenous prostaglandin production, J. Clin. Invest. 65: 543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Korn, J. H., Rickles, F. R., Ewan, V. A., Edwards, R. L., Myers, T. J., and Onder, O., 1982, Mononuclear cell modulation of fibroblast procoagulant activity, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 99: 657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Krakower, C. A., and Greenspon, S. A., 1951, Localization of the nephrotoxic antigen within the isolated renal glomerulus, Arch. Pathol. 51: 629.Google Scholar
  128. Krieger, A., Thoenes, G. H., and Gunther, E., 1981, Genetic control of autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis in rats, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 21: 301.Google Scholar
  129. Lagrue, G., Xheneumont, S., Branellec, A., and Weil, B., 1975, Lymphokines and nephrotic syndrome, Lancet 1: 271.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Lange, K., Seligson, G., and Cronin, W., 1983, Evidence for the in situ origin of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis: Glomerular localization of endostreptosin and the clinical significance of the subsequent antibody response, Clin. Nephrol. 19: 3.Google Scholar
  131. Lavelle, K. J., Durland, B. D., and Yum, M. N., 1981, The effect of anti-macrophage antiserum on immune complex glomerulonephritis, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 98: 195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Layrisse, Z., Rodriquez-Iturbe, B., Garcia-Ramirez, R., Rodriquez, A., and Tuvori, J., 1983, Family studies of the HLA system in acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, Hum. Immunol. 7: 177.Google Scholar
  133. Lehman, D. H., Wilson, C. B., and Dixon, F. J., 1974, Interstitial nephritis in rats immunized with heterologous tubular basement membrane, Kidney Int. 5: 187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Leibovich, S. J., and Ross, R., 1976, A macrophage-dependent factor that stimulates the proliferation of fibroblasts in vitro, Am. J. Pathol. 84: 501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Lerner, R., and Dixon, F. J., 1966, Transfer of ovine experimental allergic glomerulonephritis (EAG) with serum, J. Exp. Med. 124: 431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Levine, B. B., Ojeda, A., and Benacerraf, B., 1963, Studies on artificial antigens. III. The genetic control of the immune response to hapten poly-L-lysine conjugates in guinea pigs, J. Exp. Med. 118: 953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Linder, E., Miettinen, A., and Tornroth, T., 1980, Fibronectin as a marker for the glomerular mesangium in immunohistology of kidney biopsies, Lab. Invest. 42: 70.Google Scholar
  138. Lovett, D. H., Ryan, J. L., and Sterzel, R. B., 1983, A thymocyte-activating factor derived from glomerular mesangial cells, J. Immunol. 130: 1796.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. McCluskey, R. T., 1974, Immunologic mechanisms in renal disease, in: Pathology of the Kidney ( R. H. Heptinstall, ed.), pp. 273–317, Little, Brown, Boston.Google Scholar
  140. McCoy, R. C., Johnson, H. K., Stone, W. J., and Wilson, C. B., 1982, Absence of nephritogenic GBM antigens in some patients with hereditary nephritis, Kidney Int. 21: 642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. McDevitt, H. O., and Chinitz, A., 1969, Genetic control of antibody response: Relationship between immune response and histocompatibility (H-2) type, Science 163: 1207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. McDevitt, H. O., Deak, B. D., Shreffler, D. C., Klein, J., Stimpfling, J. H., and Snell, G. D., 1972, Genetic control of the immune response mapping to the Ir.1 locus, J. Exp. Med. 135: 1259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. McGiven, A. R., Hunt, J. S., Day, W. A., and Jackson, A. E., 1981, Phagocytic cells in glomerular cultures from NZB/W mice, Br. J. Exp. Pathol. 62: 59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Magil, A. B., and Wadsworth, L. D., 1981, Monocytes in human glomerulonephritis—An electron microscopic study, Lab. Invest. 45: 77.Google Scholar
  145. Magil, A. B., and Wadsworth, L. D., 1982, Monocyte involvement in glomerular crescents, Lab. Invest. 47: 160.Google Scholar
  146. Magil, A. B., Wadsworth, L. D., and Loewen, M., 1981, Monocytes and human renal glomerular disease: A quantitative evaluation, Lab. Invest. 44: 27.Google Scholar
  147. Mampaso, F. M., and Wilson, C. B., 1983, Characterization of inflammatory cells in autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis in rats, Kidney Int. 23: 448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Matsumoto, K., Yoslugana, N., and Hatano, M., 1978, Studies of cell-mediated immunity in human glomerulonephritis by macrophage migration inhibition test, Nephron 21: 192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Mayrer, A. R., Miniter, P., and Andriole, V. T., 1983, Immunopathogenesis of chronic pyelonephritis, Am. J. Med. (Suppl.) 75: 59.Google Scholar
  150. Mayrhofer, G., and Schon-Hegrad, M. A., 1983, la antigens in rat kidney with special reference to their expression in tubular epithelium, J. Exp. Med. 157: 2097.Google Scholar
  151. Melcion, C., Lachman, L., Killen, P. D., Marel-Maroger, L., and Striker, G. E., 1982, Mesangial cells and the effect of monocyte products on proliferation and matrix synthesis, Transplant. Proc. 14: 559.Google Scholar
  152. Michael, A., Keane, W. F., Raij, L., Vernier, R. L., and Mauer, S. M., 1980, The glomerular mesangium, Kidney Int. 17: 141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Milliner, D. S., Pierides, A. M., and Holley, K. E., 1982, Renal transplantation in Alport’s syndrome: Anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis in the allograft, Mayo Clin. Proc. 57: 35.Google Scholar
  154. Monga, G., Mazzucco, G., DiBelgiojoso, G. B., and Busnach, G., 1981, Monocyte infiltration and glomerular hypercellularity in human acute and persistent glomerulonephritis, Lab. Invest. 44: 381.Google Scholar
  155. Morrison, W. I., and Wright, N. G., 1977, Viruses associated with renal disease of man and animals, Prog. Med. Virol. 23: 22.Google Scholar
  156. Murphy-Ullrich, J. E., Oberley, T. D., and Mosher, D. F., 1982, Glomerular and vascular injury in mice following immunization with heterologous and autologous fibronectin, Virchows Arch. B 39: 305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. Nagle, R. B., Dong, S., Janacek, L. L., Guillot, J. M., and Lindsley, H. B., 1982, Glomerular accumulation of monocytes and macrophages in experimental glomerulonephritis associated with Trypanosoma rhodesiense infection, Lab. Invest. 46: 365.Google Scholar
  158. Nakao, Y., Matsumoto, H., Miyazaki, T., Nishitani, H., Takatsuki, K., Kasukawa, R., Nakayama, S., Izumi, S., Fujita, T., and Tsuji, K., 1980, IgG heavy chain allotypes (GM) in autoimmune diseases, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 42: 20.Google Scholar
  159. Neale, T. J., and Wilson, C. B., 1978, Non-GBM glomerular antigen in spontaneous nephritis in rabbits, Kidney Int. 14: 715.Google Scholar
  160. Neilson, E. G., and Phillips, S. M., 1979, Cell-mediated immunity in interstitial nephritis. II. T lymphocyte effector mechanisms in nephritic guinea pigs: Analysis of the renotropic migration and cytotoxic response. J. Immunol. 123: 2381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Neilson, E. G., and Phillips, S. M., 1980, The immunobiology of nephritis, Prog. Allergy 27: 167.Google Scholar
  162. Neilson, E. G., and Phillips, S. M., 1981, Cell-mediated immunity in interstitial nephritis. IV. Anti-tubular basement membrane antibodies can function in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity reactions: Observations on a nephritogenic effector mechanism acting as an informational bridge between the humoral and cellular immune response, J. Immunol. 126: 1990.Google Scholar
  163. Neilson, E. G., and Phillips, S. M., 1982a, Murine interstitial nephritis. I. Analysis of disease susceptibility and its relationship to pleiomorphic gene products defining both immune response genes and a restrictive requirement for cytolytic T cells at H-2K, J. Exp. Med. 155: 1075.Google Scholar
  164. Neilson, E. G., and Phillips, S. M., 1982b, Suppression of interstitial nephritis by auto-antiidiotypic immunity, J. Exp. Med. 155: 179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Neilson, E. G., and Zakheim, B., 1983, T cell regulation, anti-idiotypic immunity, and the nephritogenic immune response, Kidney Int. 24: 289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Neilson, E. G., Jimenez, S. A., and Phillips, S. M., 1980, Cell-mediated immunity in interstitial nephritis. III. T lymphocyte-mediated fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis: An immune mechanism for renal fibrogenesis, J. Immunol. 125: 1708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Neilson, E. G., Gasser, D. L., McCafferty, E., Zakheim, B., and Phillips, S. M., 1983, Polymorphism of genes involved in anti-tubular basement membrane disease in rats, Immunogenetics 17: 55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Neilson, E. G., McCafferty, E., Feldman, A., Clayman, M., Zakheim, B., and Korngold, R., 1984, Spontaneous interstitial nephritis in kdkd mice. I. An experimental model of autoimmune renal disease, J. Immunol. 133: 2560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Noel, L. H., Descamps, B., Junges, P., Bach, J. R., Basson, M., Suet, C., Hors, J., and Dausset, J., 1978, HLA antigens in three types of glomerulonephritis, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 10: 19.Google Scholar
  170. Nomoto, S. Y., and Arimori, S., 1979, Decrease in IgA-specific suppressor T cell activity in patients with IgA nephropathy, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38: 243.Google Scholar
  171. Norman, M. E., Mandle, R., and Nilsson, U. R., 1978, Further studies of a humoral chemotactic abnormality in glomerulonephritis, Int. Archs. Allergy Appl. Immun. 56: 144.Google Scholar
  172. Norris, D. A., Clark, R. A. F., Swigart, L. M., Huff, C., Weston, W. L., and Howell, S. E., 1982, Fibronectin fragment(s) are chemotactic for human peripheral blood monocytes, J. Immunol. 129: 1612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Nossal, G. J. V., and Pike, B. L., 1975, Evidence for the clonal abortion theory of B lymphocyte tolerance, J. Exp. Med. 141: 904.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Oberley, T. D., Mosher, D. F., and Mills, M. D., 1979, Localization of fibronectin within the renal glomerulus and its production by cultured glomerular cells, Am. J. Pathol. 96: 651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Ooi, B. S., Ooi, Y. M., Hsu, A., and Hurtubise, P. E., 1980, Diminished synthesis of immunoglobulin by peripheral lymphocytes in patients with idiopathic membranous glomerulonephropathy, J. Clin. Invest. 65: 789.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. Ooi, Y. M., Weiss, M. A., Hsu, A., and Ooi, B. S., 1983, Mechanisms of suppression of mouse mesangial cell proliferation by macrophage supernatants, J. Immunol. 130: 1790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. O’Regan, D., O’Callaghan, U., Dundon, S., and Rean, D. J., 1980, HLA antigens and steroid responsive nephrotic syndrome of childhood, Tissue Antigens 16: 147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. Osakabe, K., and Matsumoto, K., 1981, Concanavalin A-induced suppressor cell activity in lipoid nephrosis, Scand. J. Immunol. 14: 161.Google Scholar
  179. Parris, T. M., Kimberly, R. P., Inman, R. D., McDougal, S., Gibofsky, A., and Christian, C. L., 1982, Defective Fc receptor-mediated function of the mononuclear phagocyte system in lupus nephritis, Ann. Intern. Med. 97: 526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. Patel, P., Mickey, M. R., and Terasaki, P. I., 1969, Leukocyte antigens and disease; association of HLA-A2 and chronic glomerulonephritis, Br. Med. J. 2: 424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. Paul, L. C., and Carpenter, C. B., 1982, Antigenic determinants of tubular basement membranes and Bowman’s capsule in rats, Kidney Int. 21: 800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. Pettersson, E. E., and Colvin, R. B., 1978, Cold-insoluble globulin (fibronectin, LETS protein) in normal and diseased human glomeruli: Papain-sensitive attachment to normal glomeruli and deposition in crescents, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 11: 425.Google Scholar
  183. Platt, J. L., LeBien, T. W., and Michael, A. F., 1982, Interstitial mononuclear cell population in renal graft rejection, J. Exp. Med. 155: 17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. Platt, J. L., LeBien, T. W., and Michael, A. F., 1983, Stages of renal ontogenesis identified by monoclonal antibodies reactive with lympho-hemopoietic differentiation antigens, J. Exp. Med. 157: 155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. Polverini, P. J., Cotran, R. S., Gimbrone, M. A., and Unanue, E. R., 1977, Activated macrophages induce vascular proliferation. Nature (Eondon) 269: 804.Google Scholar
  186. Postlethwaite, A. E., and Kang, A. H., 1980, Characterization of guinea pig lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor for fibroblasts, J. Immunol. 124: 1462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. Postlethwaite, A. E., and Kang, A. H., 1983, Induction of fibroblast proliferation by human mononuclear leukocyte-derived proteins, Arthritis Rheum. 26: 22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. Postlethwaite, A. E., Snyderman, R., and Kang, A. H., 1976, The chemotactic attraction of human fibroblasts to a lymphocyte-derived factor, J. Exp. Med. 144: 1188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. Postlethwaite, A. E., Lachman, L. B., Mainardi, C. L., and Kang, A. H., 1983, Interleukin 1 stimulation of collagenase production by cultured fibroblasts, J. Exp. Med. 157: 801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. Raij, L., Sibley, R. K., and Keane, W. F., 1981, Mononuclear phagocytic system stimulation: Protective role from glomerular immune complex deposition, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 98: 558.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. Rapaport, F. T., Markowitz, A. S., McCluskey, R. T., Hanaoka, T., and Shumada, T., 1969, Induction of renal disease with antisera to group A streptococcal membranes, Transplant. Proc. 1: 981.Google Scholar
  192. Read, S. E., Reid, H., Poon-King, T., Fischetti, V. A., Zabrieskie, J. B., and Rapaport, F. T., 1977, HLA and predisposition to the non-suppurative sequelae of group A streptococcal infections, Transplant. Proc. 9: 543.Google Scholar
  193. Rees, A. J., Peters, D. K., Compston, D. A. S., and Batchelor, J. R., 1978, Strong association between HLA-DR2 and antibody mediated Goodpasture’s syndrome, Lancet 1: 966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. Richman, A. V., Mahoney, J. J., and Filler, T. J., 1979, Higher prevalence of HLA-B12 in patients with IgA nephropathy, Ann. Intern. Med. 90: 201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. Riviere, Y., Gresser, I., Guillon, J. C., and Tovey, M. G., 1977, Inhibition by anti-interferon serum of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus disease in suckling mice, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74: 2135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. Rose, L. M., Goldmann, M., and Lambert, P. H., 1982, The production of anti-idiotypic antibodies and of idiotype-anti-idiotype immune complexes after polyclonal activation induced by bacterial LPS, J. Immunol. 128: 2126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. Rosenbaum, J. T., Adelman, N. E., and McDevitt, H. O., 1981, In vivo effects of antibodies to immune response gene products. I. Haplotype-specific suppression of humoral immune response with a monoclonal anti-I-A, J. Exp. Med. 154: 1694.Google Scholar
  198. Rosenthal, A. S., 1982, Determinant selection and macrophage function, Immunol. Today 3: 33.Google Scholar
  199. Rosenthal, A. S., and Shevach, E. M., 1973, Function of macrophages in antigen recognition by guinea pig T lymphocytes. I. Requirement for histocompatible macrophages and lymphocytes, J. Exp. Med. 138: 1194.Google Scholar
  200. Rossen, R. D., Reisberg, M. A., Hersh, E. M., and Gutterman, J. U., 1976, Measurement of soluble immune complexes: A guide to prognosis in cancer patients, Clin. Res. 24: 462a.Google Scholar
  201. Rudofsky, U. H., Dilwith, R. L., and Tung, K. S. K., 1980, Susceptibility differences of inbred mice to induction of autoimmune renal tubulointerstitial lesions, Lab. Invest. 43: 463.Google Scholar
  202. Rutherford, B., Stefflin, K., and Sexton, J., 1982, Activated human mononuclear phagocytes release a substance(s) that reduces replication of quiescent human fibroblastsJ. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 31: 281.Google Scholar
  203. Sakane, T., Steinberg, A. D., Reeves, J. P., and Green, I., 1979, Studies of immune functions of patients with systemic lupus euythematosus: complement-dependent immunoglobulin M anti-thymus-derived cell antibodies preferentially inactive suppressor cells, J. Clin. Invest. 63: 954.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. Salant, D. J., Darby, C., and Couser, W. G., 1980, Experimental membranous glomerulonephritis in rats. Quantitative Studies of glomerular immune deposit formation in isolated glomeruli and whole animals, J. Clin. Invest. 66: 71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. Sapin, C., Druet, P., and Mandet, C., 1980, Induction of susceptibility to HgCl2 immune glomerulonephritis in the Lewis rat by immunocompetent cells from susceptible hybrids, Eur. J. Immunol. 10: 371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Sasazuki, T., Hayase, R., Iwamoto, I., and Tsuchida, H., 1979, HLA and poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, N. Engl. J. Med. 301: 1184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Scheinman, J. I., Fish, A. J., Matas, A. J., and Michael, A. F., 1978, The immunohistopathology of glomerular antigens. II. The glomerular basement membrane, actin, myosin, and fibroblast surface antigens in normal, diseased, and transplanted human kidneys, Am. J. Pathol. 90: 71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. Schmidt, J. A., Mizel, S. B., Cohen, D., and Green, I., 1982, Interleukin 1, a potential regulator of fibroblast proliferation, J. Immunol. 128: 2177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. Schmitt, E., Seyfarth, M., Werner, H., and Klinkmann, H., 1982, Cellular immunity in glomerulonephritis, Clin. Nephrol. 17: 271.Google Scholar
  210. Schreiner, G. F., Cotran, R. S., Pardo, V., and Unanue, E. R., 1978, A mononuclear cell component in experimental immunological glomerulonephritis, J. Exp. Med. 147: 369.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. Schreiner, G., Kiely, J. M., Cotran, R. S., and Unanue, E. R., 1981, Characterization of resident glomerular cells in the rat expressing la determinants and manifesting genetically restricted interactions with lymphocytes, J. Clin. Invest. 68: 920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. Schreiner, G. F., Cotran, R. S., and Unanue, E. R., 1982, Macrophages and cellular immunity in experimental glomerulonephritis, Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 5: 251.Google Scholar
  213. Schur, P. S., and Carpenter, C. B., 1979, Host and genetic factors contributing to immunologic renal disease, in: Contemporary Issues in Nephrology, Volume 3 ( C. B. Wilson, B. M. Brenner, and J. H. Stein, eds.), pp. 144–166, Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  214. Schwartz, R. H., 1978, A clonal deletion model for Ir gene control of the immune response, Scand. J. Immunol. 7: 3.Google Scholar
  215. Schwartz, R. S., 1982, Recent trends in systemic lupus erythematosus, Pharmacol. Rev. 34: 105.Google Scholar
  216. Seiler, M. W., and Hoyer, J. R., 1981, Ultrastructural studies of tubulointerstitial immune complex nephritis in rats immunized with Tamm-Horsfall protein, Lab. Invest. 45: 321.Google Scholar
  217. Seligson, G., Large, K., and Cronui, W., 1982, Evidence for the in situ origin of post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis, Kidney Int. 21: 213.Google Scholar
  218. Shalhoub, R. J., 1974, Pathogenesis of lipoid nephrosis: A disorder of T cell function, Lancet 2: 556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. Sherman, L. A., 1983, Binding of soluble fibrin in macrophages, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 408: 610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Shibata, S., 1978, Immunologic and non-immunologic aspects of glomerulonephritis, in: Biology and Chemistry of Basement Membranes ( N. A. Kefalides, ed.), pp. 535–560, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  221. Shibata, S., Nagasawa, T., Takuma, T., Naruse, T., and Muyakawa, Y., 1966, Isolation and properties of the soluble antigen specific for the production of nephrotoxic glomerulonephritis. I. Immunopathological demonstration of the complete antigenicity of the soluble antigen, Jpn. J. Exp. Med. 36: 127.Google Scholar
  222. Shibata, S., Nagasawa, T., Muyakawa, Y., and Naruse, T., 1971, Nephritogenic glycoprotein. I. Proliferative glomerulonephritis induced in rats by a single injection of the soluble glycoprotein isolated from homologous glomerular basement membrane, J. Immunol. 106: 1284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. Shibata, S., Sakaguchi, H., Nagasawa, T., and Naruse, T., 1972, Nephritogenic glycoprotein. I. Experimental production of membranous glomerulonephritis in rats by a single injection of homologous renal glycopeptide, Lab. Invest. 27: 457.Google Scholar
  224. Shibata, S., Sakaguchi, H., and Nagasawa, T., 1976, Induction of chronic progressive glomerulonephritis with immunofluorescent “mesangial pattern” in rats, Nephron 16: 241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. Shibata, S., Nagasawa, T., and Muira, K., 1977, Nephritogenoside, the receptor glycoprotein for concanavalin A in rat glomerular basement membrane: Demonstration of a-D-glucopyranosyl unit at the non-reducing terminus, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 499: 392.Google Scholar
  226. Shigematsu, H., Shishido, H., Sano, M., Kogayashi, Y., Kondo, Y., and Okabayashi, A., 1976, Participation of monocytes in transient glomerular hypercellularity in acute glomerulonephritis of experimental animals and man, Contrib. Nephrol. 2: 41.Google Scholar
  227. Siliciano, R. F., Brookmeyer, R., and Shin, H. S., 1983, The diversity of T cell receptors specific for self MHC gene products, J. Immunol. 130: 1512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. Sitrin, R. D., Antell, L., Griswold, D. E., Bender, P. E., Greig, R. G., and Poste, G., 1982, A high performance liquid chromatography assay for the rapid analysis of the subunit content of concanavalin A, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 717: 175.Google Scholar
  229. Spargo, B. H., Seymore, A. E., and Ordonez, N. G., 1980, Renal Biopsy Pathology with Diagnostic and Therapeutic Implication, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  230. Sraer, J., Baud, L., Bens, M., Podjarny, E., Schlondorff, D., Ardaillou, R., and Sraer, J. D., 1984, Glomeruli cooperate with macrophages in converting arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids, Kidney Int. 25: 337a.Google Scholar
  231. Steblay, R. W., 1962, Glomerulonephritis induced in sheep by injections of heterologous glomerular basement membrane and Freund’s complete adjuvant, J. Exp. Med. 116: 253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. Steblay, R. W., and Rudofsky, U., 1971, Renal tubular disease and autoantibodies of tubular basement membrane induced in guinea pigs, J. Immunol. 107: 589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. Steinberg, A. D., Huston, D. P., Taurog, J. D., Cowdery, J. S., and Raveche, E. S., 1981, The cellular and genetic basis of murine lupus, Immunol. Rev. 55: 121.Google Scholar
  234. Steinberg, A. D., Smith, H. R., Laskin, C. A., Steinberg, B. J., and Smolen, J. S., 1982, Studies of immune abnormalities in systemic lupus erythematosus, Am. J. Kidney Dis. 2: S101.Google Scholar
  235. Steinmetz, M., and Hood, L., 1983, Genes of the major histocompatibility complex in mouse and man, Science 222: 727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. Stenglein, B., Thoenes, G. W., and Gunther, E., 1975, Genetically controlled autologous immune complex glomerulonephritis in rats, J. Immunol. 115: 895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. Stenglein, B., Thoenes, G. W., and Gunther, E., 1978, Genetic control of susceptibility to autologous immune complex glomerulonephritis in inbred rat strains, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 33: 88.Google Scholar
  238. Stenman, S., and Vaheri, A., 1978, Distribution of a major connective tissue protein, fibronectin, in normal human tissues, J. Exp. Med. 147: 1054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. Sterzel, R. B., and Pabst, R., 1982, The temporal relationship between glomerular cell proliferation and monocyte infiltration in experimental glomerulonephritis, Virchows Arch. B 38: 337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Sterzel, R. B., Lovett, D. H., Stein, H. D., and Kashgarian, M., 1982, The mesangium and glomerulonephritis, Klin. Wochenschr. 60: 1077.Google Scholar
  241. Steward, M. W., 1979, Chronic immune complex disease in mice: The role of antibody affinity, Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38: 414.Google Scholar
  242. Steward, M. W., 1981, The biological significance of antibody affinity, Immunol. Today 2: 134.Google Scholar
  243. Steward, M. W., Reinhardt, M. C., and Staines, N. A., 1979, The genetic control of antibody affinity: Evidence from breeding studies with mice selectively bred for either high or low affinity production, Immunology 37: 697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. Striker, G. E., Mannik, M., and Tung, M. Y., 1979, Role of marrow-derived monocytes and mesangial cells in removal of immune complexes from renal glomeruli, J. Exp. Med. 149: 127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. Swain, S. L., 1981, Significance of Lyt phenotypes: Lyt 2 antibodies block activities of T cells that recognize class I major histocompatibility complex antigens regardless of function, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 7101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. Timpl, R., Rolide, H., Gehron, R. P., Renard, S.I., Foidart, J. M., and Martin, G. R., 1979, Laminin glycoprotein from basement membranes, J. Biol. Chem. 254: 9933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. Trompeter, R. S., Barratt, T. M., Kay, R., Turner, M. W., and Soothall, J. F., 1980, HLA, atopy and cyclophosphamide in steroid responsive childhood nephrotic syndrome, Kidney Int. 17: 113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Tsukamoto, Y., Helsel, W. E., and Wahl, S. M., 1981, Macrophage production of fibronectin, a chemoattractant for fibroblasts, J. Immunol. 127: 673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. Unanue, E. R., and Dixon, F. J., 1965, Experimental glomerulonephritis. V. Studies on the interaction of nephrotoxic antibodies with the tissues of the rat, J. Exp. Med. 121: 697.Google Scholar
  250. Unanue, E. R., Dixon, F. J., and Feldman, J. D., 1967, Experimental allergic glomerulonephritis induced in the rabbit with homologous renal antigens, J. Exp. Med. 125: 163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Unkeless, J. C., Gordon, S., and Reich, E., 1974, Secretion of plasminogen activator by stimulated macrophages, J. Exp. Med. 139: 834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. Valle, M. J., Jordan, G. W., Haahr, S., and Merigan, T. C., 1975, Characteristics of immune interferon produced by human lymphocyte cultures compared to other human interferons, J. Immunol. 115: 230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Van Damme, B. J. C., Fleuren, G. J., Bakker, W. W., Vernude, R. L., and Hoedemaker, P. J., 1978, Experimental glomerulonephritis in the rat induced by antibodies directed against tubular antigens. V. Fixed glomerular antigens in the pathogenesis of heterologous immune complex glomerulonephritis, Eab. Invest. 38: 502.Google Scholar
  254. van Voorhis, W. C., Volinsky, J., Hoffman, E., Luban, J., Hair, L. S., and Steenman, R. M., 1983, Relative efficacy of human monocytes and dendritic cells as accessory cells for T cell replication, J. Exp. Med. 158: 714.Google Scholar
  255. Wagner, C. M., Lucas, D. O., and Nagle, R. B., 1983, The effect of macrophages on the metabolism of glomerular cells: Preliminary studies, J. Reticuloendothel. Soc. 33: 93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. Wahl, S. M., Wahl, L. M., and McCarthy, J. B., 1978, Lymphocyte-mediated activation of fibroblast proliferation and collagen production, J. Immunol. 121: 942.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. Wakashin, Y., Takei, I., Ueda, S., Mori, Y., Jesato, K., Wakashin, M., and Ekuda, K., 1981, Autoimmune interstitial disease of the kidney and associated antigens: Purification and characterization of a soluble tubular basement membrane antigen, Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol. 19: 360.Google Scholar
  258. Waksman, B. H., 1979, Adjuvants and immune regulation by lymphoid cells, Springer Semin. Immunopathol. 2: 5.Google Scholar
  259. Weiss, M. A., Ooi, B. S., Ooi, Y. M., Engvall, E., and Ruoslahti, E., 1979, Immunofluorescent localization of fibronectin in the human kidney, Lab. Invest. 41: 340.Google Scholar
  260. Wilson, C. B., 1983, Nephritogenic immune response involving basement membrane and other antigens in or of the glomerulus, in: Immune Mechanisms in Renal Disease ( N. B. Cummings, A. F. Michael, and C. B. Wilson, eds.), pp. 233–248, Plenum Medical Book Co., New York.Google Scholar
  261. Wilson, C. B., and Dixon, F. J., 1973, Anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody induced glomerulonephritis, Kidney Int. 3: 74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. Wilson, C. B., and Dixon, F. J., 1981, The renal response to immunologic injury, in: The Kidney ( B. M. Brenner and F. C. Rector, Jr., eds.), pp. 1237–1350, Saunders, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  263. Wilson, C. B., Lehman, D. H., McCoy, R. C., Gunnels, J. C., and Stickel, D. L., 1974, Antitubular basement membrane antibodies after renal transplantation, Transplantation 18: 447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Woodroffe, A. J., Neale, T. J., and Wilson, C. B., 1978, Spontaneous glomerulonephritis (GN) in New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits, in: Vlllth International Congress of Nephrology, Montreal, ( Abstract).Google Scholar
  265. Wooley, P. H., Griffin, J., Panayi, G. S., Batchelor, J. R., Welsh, K. I., and Gibson, T. J., 1980, HLA-DR antigens and toxin reactions to sodium aurothiomalate and penicillamine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, N. Engl. J. Med. 303: 300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. Yamada, K. M., 1980, Fibronectin: Transformation-sensitive cell surface protein, Lymphokine Rep. 1: 231.Google Scholar
  267. Zakheim, B., McCafferty, E., Phillips, S. M., Clayman, M., and Neilson, E. G., 1984, Murine interstitial nephritis. II. The adoptive transfer of disease with immune T lymphocytes produces a phenotypically complex interstitial lesion, J. Immunol 133: 234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. Zanetti, M., and Wilson, C. B., 1983, Characterization of anti-tubular basement membrane antibodies in rats, J. Immunol. 130: 2173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. Zanetti, M., Mampaso, F., and Wilson, C. B., 1983, Anti-idiotype as a probe in the analysis of autoimmune tubulointerstitial nephritis in the Brown Norway rat, J. Immunol. 131: 1268.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael D. Clayman
    • 1
  • Carl S. Goldstein
    • 1
  • Eric G. Neilson
    • 1
  1. 1.Renal Electrolyte Section, Department of MedicineUniversity of Pennsylvania School of MedicinePhiladelphiaUSA

Personalised recommendations