Regulation of Neuroendocrine Pathways by Thymosins

  • Nicholas R. Hall
  • Bryan L. Spangelo
  • Allan L. Goldstein
  • John M. FarahJr
  • Thomas L. O’Donohue
Part of the GWUMC Department of Biochemistry Annual Spring Symposia book series (GWUN)


Historically, the thymus gland has long been considered an endocrine gland, first with a role within the reproductive axis (Anderson, 1932) and later as an organ functioning in opposition to the adrenal cortex (Martin, 1976). Within the past three decades, a crucial role during the differentiation of T lymphocytes has also been documented, a role that has greatly overshadowed the thymus gland’s importance as a reproductive and/or stress-associated endocrine tissue. Evidence collected in recent years suggests that these apparently dissociated roles are not mutually exclusive and that in some instances, soluble products of thymic epithelial cells and lymphocytes are responsible for normal functioning of the cellular branch of the immune system as well as the regulation of reproductive and stress-associated neuroendocrine circuits (Goldstein et al., 1981; Hall and Goldstein, 1983). These peptides with hormonelike activity are called thymosins and are able to exert their immunoregulatory influences both directly, by acting at the level of the lymphocyte, and indirectly, via pituitary-gonadal and pituitary-adrenal hormones.


Luteinizing Hormone Pituitary Gland Thymus Gland Neuroendocrine Regulation Medial Basal Hypothalamus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nicholas R. Hall
    • 1
  • Bryan L. Spangelo
    • 1
  • Allan L. Goldstein
    • 1
  • John M. FarahJr
    • 2
  • Thomas L. O’Donohue
    • 2
  1. 1.The George Washington University School of Medicine and Health SciencesWashington, D. C.USA
  2. 2.Experimental Therapeutics BranchNational Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and StrokeBethesdaUSA

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