Advertisement

Imagery Processing During Hypnosis: Relationships to Hypnotizability and Cognitive Strategies

  • Helen J. Crawford

Abstract

One of the basic phenomena of hypnosis is the involvement in suggestion-related imaginings, with an accompanying cessation or significant decrease in reality testing. Certain cognitive abilities must exist in order for an individual to respond to a hypnotic induction and to experience subsequent suggestions. One such ability which is necessary, but certainly not sufficient, is the aptitude for imaginal processing. Once in hypnosis the responsive individual commonly reports enhancements or changes in imaginal processing--the images are more vivid and real, they tend to be more holistic, and they come more effortlessly. In this paper this author shall explore research that has examined (a) the correlates between hypnotic responsiveness and imaginal processing abilities, and (b) changes or shifts in imaginal processing and cognitive strategies during hypnosis.

Keywords

Mental Imagery Hemispheric Specificity Imagery Ability Imagery Processing Hypnotic Susceptibility 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, S. N. (1985). Hypnotic responsiveness in children: Imaginative and creative correlates. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. R. (1978). Arguments concerning representations for mental imagery. Psychological Review, 85, 249–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashton, M. A., & McDonald, R. P. (1985). Effects of hypnosis on verbal and non-verbal creativity. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 33, 15–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bakan, P. (1969). Hypnotizability, laterality of eye movements and functional brain asymmetry. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 28, 927–932.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bakan, P. (1980). Imagery raw and cooked: A hemispheric recipe. In J. E. Shorr, G. E. Sobel, P. Robin, & J. A. Connella (Eds.), Imagery: Its many dimensions and applications. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bányai, E. I., Mészâros, I., & Csókay, L. (1985). Interaction between hypnotist and subject: A special psychophysiological approach. In D. Waxman, P. C. Misra, M. Gibson, & M. A. Basker (Eds.), Modern trends in hypnosis. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  7. Barber, T. X., & Wilson, S. C. (1977). Hypnosis, suggestions, and altered states of consciousness: Experimental evaluation of the new cognitive-behavioral theory and the traditional trance-state theory of “hypnosis.” In W. E. Edmonston, Jr. (Ed.), Conceptual and investigative approaches to hypnosis and hypnotic phenomena. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 296, 34–47.Google Scholar
  8. Battig, W. F. (1979). Are the important “individual differences” between or within individuals? Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 546–558.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Begg, I. (1978). Imagery and organization in memory: Instructional effects. Memory and Cognition, 6, 174–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Berger, G. H., & Gaunitz, S. C. B. (1977). Self-rated imagery and vividness of task in relation to visual memory. British Journal of Psychology, 68, 283–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berger, G. H., & Gaunitz, S. C. B. (1979). Self-rated imagery and encoding strategies in visual memory. British Journal of Psychology, 70, 21–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bower, G. H. (1970). Imagery as a relational organizer in associative learning. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, 529–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bowers, K. (1968). Hypnosis and creativity: A preliminary investigation. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 15, 38–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bowers, P. (1978). Hypnotizability, creativity, and the role of effortless experiencing. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 26, 184–202.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bowers, P. (1979). Hypnosis and creativity: The search for the missing link. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 564–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bowers, P. G., & Bowers, K. S. (1979). Hypnosis and creativity: A theoretical and empirical rapprochement. In E. Fromm & R. E. Shor (Eds.), Hypnosis: Developments in research and new perspectives ( 2nd ed. ). New York: Aldine, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. Chen, A. C. N., Dworkin, S. F., & Bloomquist, D. S. (1981). Cortical power spectrum analysis of hypnotic pain control in surgery. International Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 127–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Coe, W. C., St. Jean, R. L., & Burger, J. M. (1980). Hypnosis and the enhancement of imagery. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 28, 225–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association (1985). Scientific status of refreshing recollection by the use of hypnosis. JAMA, 253, 1918–1923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Craik, F. I. M., & Tulving, E. (1975). Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 1,. 268–294.Google Scholar
  21. Crawford, H. J. (1981). Hypnotic susceptibility as related to gestalt closure tasks. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 40, 376–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crawford, H. J. (1982). Hypnotizability, daydreaming styles, imagery vividness, and absorption: A multidimensional study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 42, 915–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crawford, H. J., & Allen, S. N. (1983). Enhanced visual memory during hypnosis as mediated by hypnotic responsiveness and cognitive strategies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 112, 662–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crawford, H. J., & Brown, A. M. (1985). Sustained, selective, and dual-attentional abilities: Multidimensional relationships to hypnotic responsiveness. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  25. Crawford, H. J., & Brown, A. M. (1985). Sustained, selective, and dual-attentional abilities: Multidimensional relationships to hypnotic responsiveness. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  26. Crawford, H. J., Nomura, K., & Slater, H. (1983). Spatial memory processing: Enhancement during hypnosis. In J. E. Shrr, J. Conella, G. Sobel, & P. Robin (Eds.), Imagery: Theoretical aspects and applications. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  27. Crawford, H. J., Wallace, B., Nomura, K., & Slater, H. (1985). Eidetic-like imagery in hypnosis: Rare but there. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  28. DiVesta, F. J., Ingersoll, G., & Sunshine, P. (1971). A factor analysis of imagery tests. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10, 461–470.Google Scholar
  29. Dywan, J., & Bowers, K. S. (1983). The use of hypnosis to enhance recall. Science, 222, 184–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ekstrom, R. B., French, J. W., Harman, H. H., & Derman, D. (1976). Manual for Kit of Factor-referenced Cognitive Tests 1976. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  31. Ernest, C. H. (1977). Imagery ability and cognition: A critical review. Journal of Mental Imagery, 2, 181–216.Google Scholar
  32. Evans, F. J. (1979). Hypnosis and sleep: The control of altered states of awareness. In W. E. Edmonstron, Jr. (Ed.), Conceptual and investigative aproaches to hypnosis and hypnotic phenomena. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 296, 162–174.Google Scholar
  33. Fromm, E., Oberlander, M. I., & Gruenewald, D. (1970). Perceptual and cognitive processes in different states of consciousness: The waking state and hypnosis. Journal of Projective Techniques and Personality, 34, 375–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Graham, C., & Evans, F. J. (1977). Hypnotizability and the development of waking attention. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 86, 631–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Graham, K. R., & Pernicano, K. (1979). Laterality, hypnosis, and the autokinetic effect. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 11, 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grumbles, D., & Crawford, H. J. (1981). Differential attentional skills and hypnotizability. Paper presented at the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis Annual Meeting, Portland, Oregon.Google Scholar
  37. Gruzelier, J., Brow, T., Perry, A., Rhondes, J., & Thomas, M. (1984). Hypnotic susceptibility: A lateral predisposition and altred cerebral asymmetry under hypnosis. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 2, 131–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gummerman, K., Gray, C. R., & Wilson, J. M. (1972). An attempt to assess eidetic imagery objectively. Psychonomic Sciences, 28, 115–118.Google Scholar
  39. Gur, R. C., & Gur, R. E. (1974). Handedness, sex and eyedness as moderating variables in the relation between hypnotic susceptibility and functional brain asymmetry. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83, 635–643.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gur, R. C., & Hilgard, E. R. (1975). Visual imagery and the discrimination of differences between altered pictures simultaneously and successively presented. British Journal of Psychology, 66, 341–345.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gur, R. C., & Reyher, J. (1976). The enhancement of creativity via free imagery and hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 18, 237–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Haber, R. N. (1979). Twenty years of haunting eidetic imagery: Where’s the ghost? The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 583–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hilgard, E. R. (1977). Divided consciousness: Multiple control in human thought and action. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  44. Hilgard, J. R. (1979). Personality and hypnosis: A study of imaginative involvement ( 2nd ed. ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  45. Julesz, B. (1971). Foundations of cyclopean perception. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. Karlin, R. A. (1979). Hypnotizability and attention. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 92–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Karlin, R., Cohen, A., & Goldstein, L. (1984). Shifting to the right during hypnosis. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  48. Karlin, R., Goldstein, L., Cohen, A., & Morgan, D. (1980). Quantitated EEG, hypnosis and hypnotizability. Paper presented at the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis Annual Meeting, Chicago, Illinois.Google Scholar
  49. Kroger, W. S., & Douce, R. G. (1980). Forensic uses of hypnosis. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 23, 86–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Laurence, J-R., & Perry, C. (1983). Hypnotically created memory among highly hypnotizable subjects. Science, 222, 523–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Levin, L. A., & Harrison, R. H. (1976). Hypnosis and regression in the service of the ego. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 24, 400–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Levy, J., Heller, W., Banich, M. T., & Burton, L. A. (1983). Are variations among right-handed individuals in perceptual asymmetries caused by characteristic arousal differences between hemispheres? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 9, 329–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lockhart, R. S., Craik, R. I. M., & Jacoby, L. (1976). Depth of processing, recognition, and recall. In J. Brown (Ed.), Recall and recognition. London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  54. MacLeod-Morgan, C. (1979). Hypnotic susceptibility, EEG theta and alpha waves, and hemispheric specificity. In G. D. Burrows, D. R. Collison, & L. Dennerstein (Eds.), Hypnosis 1979. Holland: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press.Google Scholar
  55. MacLeod-Morgan, C. (1982). EEG lateralization in hypnosis: A preliminary report. Australian Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 10, 99–102.Google Scholar
  56. MacLeod-Morgan, C. (1985). Hemispheric specificity and hypnotizability: An overview of ongoing EEG research in South Australia. In D. Waxman, P. C. Misra, M. Gibson, & M. A. Basker (Eds.), Modern trends in hypnosis. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  57. MacLeon-Morgan, C., & Lack, L. (1982). Hemispheric specificity: A physiological concomitant of hypnotizability. Psychophysiology, 19, 687–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marks, D. B. (1973). Visual imagery differences in the recall of pictures. British Journal of Psychology, 65, 17–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Meier, N. C. (1940). The Meier Art Tests: I. Art Judgment. Iowa City, Iowa: University of Iowa, Bureau of Educational Research and Service.Google Scholar
  60. Orne, M. T., Soskis, D. A., Dinges, D. F., & Orne, E. C. (1984). Hypnotically induced testimony. In G. L. Wells & E. F. Loftus (Eds.), Eyewitness testimony: Psychological perspectives. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Paivio, A. (1983). Imagery and verbal processes ( 2nd ed. ). New Jersey: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  62. Putnam, W. H. (1979). Hypnosis and distortions of eye-witness memory. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 27, 437–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1973). What the mind’s eye tells the mind’s brain: A critique of mental imagery. Psychological Bulletin, 80, 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Pylyshyn, Z. W. (1979). Validating computation models: A critique of Anderson’s indeterminancy of representation claim. Psychological Review, 86, 383–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Rainer, D. (1983). Eyewitness testimony: Does hypnosis enhance accuracy, distortion, and confidence? Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming.Google Scholar
  66. Reiser, M. (1980). Handbook of investigative hypnosis. Los Angeles: LEHI.Google Scholar
  67. Richardson, J. T. E. (1980). Mental imagery and human memory. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  68. Sanders, S. (1967). The effect of hypnosis on visual memory. (Doctoral dissertation, University of Kentucky, 1967). Dissertation Abstracts International, 30, 2936B–2937B.Google Scholar
  69. Scharf, B., & Zamansky, H. S. (1963). Reduction of word recognition threshold under hypnosis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 17, 499–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Sheehan, P. W. (1979). Hypnosis and the processes of imagination. In E. Fromm & R. Shor (Eds.), Hypnosis: Developments in research and new perspectives. New York: Aldine, 1979.Google Scholar
  71. Sheehan, P. W. (1982). Imagery and hypnosis-Forgoing a link, at least in part. Research Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry, and Behavior, 7, 257–272.Google Scholar
  72. Sheehan, P.W., & Tilden, J. (1983). Effects of suggestibility and hypnosis on accurate and distorted retrieval from memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 9, 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Shofield, L. J., & Platoni, K. (1976). Manipulation of visual imagery under various hypnotic conditions. American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 18, 191–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shor, R. E. (1960). The frequency of naturally occurring “hypnotic-like” experiences in the normal college population. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 8, 151–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Singer, J. L., & Antrobus, J. S. (1963). A factor analytic study of daydreaming and conceptually related cognitive and personality variables. Perceptual and Motor Skills Monograph Supplement, 17, 187–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Singer, J. L., & Antrobus, J. S. (1972). Daydreaming, imaginal processes and personality: A normative study. In P. W. Sheehan (Ed.), The function and nature of imagery. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  77. Spanos, N. P., Ansari, F., & Stam, H. J. (1979). Hypnotic age regression and eidetic imagery: A failure to replicate. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88, 88–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Stomeyer, C. F., & Psotka, J. (1970). The detailed texture of eidetic imagery. Nature, 225, 346–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tellegen, A., & Atkinson, G. (1974). Openness to absorbing and self-altering experiences (“absorption”), a trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83, 268–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Virshup, E., & Virshup, B. (1980). Visual imagery: The language of the right brain. In J. E. Shorr et al. (Eds.), Imagery: Its many dimensions and applications. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  81. Walker, N. W., Garrett, J. B., & Wallace, B. (1976). Restoration of eidetic imagery via hypnotic age regression: A preliminary report. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 335–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Wallace, B. (1978). Restoration of eidetic imagery via hypnotic age regression: More evidence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 673–675.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Wallace, B. (1979). Eidetic imagery need not haunt us: A supportive example for the use of phenomenological reports. The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 2, 618–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Weitzenhoffer, A. M., & Hilgard, E. R. (1962). Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C. Palo Alto, Ca.: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen J. Crawford
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WyomingLaramieUSA

Personalised recommendations