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Covert Modeling: Imagery-Based Rehearsal for Therapeutic Change

  • Alan E. Kazdin

Abstract

Imagery has been used rather extensively in various forms of psychotherapy, particularly in Europe (Singer, 1974; Singer and Pope, 1978). In psychoanalysis, for example, imagery and fantasy have had at least an ancillary role in the treatment process. Both Freud and Jung.employed fantasy as a basis for assessing psychological processes assumed to underlie symptomatic behaviors. Variations of psychoanalytic practice have used imagery-based procedures more extensively. For example, imagining scenes with content of psychodynamic significance has characterized psychoanalytic treatment at different points in history (e.g., Clark, 1925; Kubie, 1943; Reyher, 1963). Many other techniques spawned by analytic treatment rely hevily on imagery (Singer, 1974). Clients may be instructed to imagine standardized scenes that reflect such themes as interpersonal relationships, conflicts, and personal strivings. Alternatively, imagery can be less structured, and the client may be encouraged to engage in free-flowing imagery. In such cases, the client usually is deeply relaxed and engages in imagery construction for the entire therapy session. The therapeutic effects of guided-imagery are assumed to result either from the imagery process itself or from the psychologically significant material that imagery evokes (Desoille, 1938; Fretigny and Virel, 1968; Leuner, 1969).

Keywords

Behavior Therapy Observational Learning Overt Behavior Therapeutic Change Systematic Desensitization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan E. Kazdin
    • 1
  1. 1.Western Psychiatric Institute and ClinicUniversity of Pittsburgh School of MedicineUSA

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