Kinins IV pp 247-254 | Cite as

Release of Kallikrein and Tonin from the Rat Submandibular Gland

  • Subir R. Maitra
  • Sara F. Rabito
  • Oscar A. Carretero
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 198A)


The interaction of neurotransmitters and hormones with specific receptors on the plasma membranes of cells results in enzyme secretion from exocrine glands. However, the effects of agonists on the release of kallikrein and tonin from the rat submandibular gland have not yet been evaluated systematically. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of norepinephrine, isoproterenol, methacholine, and cholecystokinin on the simultaneous release of kallikrein and tonin from the rat submandibular gland. Submandibular gland slices were incubated in vitro at 37° C in a modified Krebs-Ringer medium containing 0.2% each of glucose and bovine serum albumin and bubbled with a gas mixture of 95% O2 and 5% CO2. Glandular kallikrein and tonin secreted into the incubation medium were determined by specific radioimmunoassays. Norepinephrine at 10-5M concentration increased kallikrein secretion from a control value of 7.7 ± 1.5 to 114.7 ± 26.9 ng/min/mg tissues (p<.01), and at 10-4M concentration kallikrein secretion increased to 265.9 ± 58.3 ng/min/mg tissue (p<.01). Similarly, norepinephrine at 10-5M enhanced the release of tonin from a basal rate of 4.4 ± 0.6 to 57 ±14.4 ng/min/mg tissue (p<.05), and at 10-4M the rate increased to 91.3 ± 20.0 ng/min/mg tissue (p<.01). In contrast, isoproterenol, methacholine, and cholecystokinin did not increase the secretion of kallikrein or tonin. We conclude that the secretion of kallikrein and tonin from rat submandibular glands upon sympathetic stimulation is mediated through stimulation of α-adrenoceptors only.


Incubation Medium Submandibular Gland Renovascular Hypertension Sympathetic Stimulation Henry Ford Hospital 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    E. G. Erdos, L. L. Tague, and I. Miwa, Kallikrein in granules of the submaxillary gland, Biochem. Pharmac., 17, 667, 674, (1968).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    T. B. Orstavik, P. Brandtsaeg, K. Nustad, and K. M. Halvorsen, Cellular localization of kallikreins in rat submandibular and sublingual glands, Acta. Histochem., 54, 183–192, (1975).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. A. V. Simson, S. S. Spicer, J. Chao, L. Grim, and H. S. Margolius, Kallikrein localization in rodent salivary glands and kidney with the immunoglobulin-enzyme bridge technique, J. Histochem. Cytochem., 27, 1567–1576, (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    T. B. Orstavik and K. M. Gautvik, Regulation of salivary kallikrein secretion in the rat submandibular gland, Acta. Physiol. Scand., 100, 33–44, (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. F. Rabito, A. G. Scicli, T. B. Orstavik, O. A. Garretero, Role of the autonomic nervous system in the release of rat submandibular gland kallikrein and tonin into the circulation, Fed. Proc., 41, 1472, (1982).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. F. Rabito, T. B. Orstavik, A. G. Scicli, A. Schork, and O. A. Carretero, Role of autonomic nervous system in the release of rat submandibular gland kallikrein into the circulation, Circ. Res., 52, 635–641, (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Garcia, R. Boucher, and J. Genest, Tonin activity in rat saliva: Effect of sympathomimetic and parasympathomimetic drugs, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmac., 54, 443–445, (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. Garcia, K. Kondo, B. Scholkens, R. Boucher, and J. Genest, Effect in vivo of β-adrenergic stimulation, angiotensin II, dibutyryl cyclic AMP, and theophyline on tonin concentration in rat saliva and submaxillary gland, Can. J. Physiol. Pharmac., 55, 983–989, (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    K. Kondo, Release of tonin by rat submandibular gland slices in vitro, Jap. Circul. J., 43, 837–842, (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Gutkowska, M. Lis, M. Cantin, and J. Genest, Solid-phase radio immunoassay of tonin in extracts of submandibular glands of rats treated chronically with isoproterenol, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 170, 165–171, (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    H. Izumi, Release of kallikrein-like esterase and tonin from dispersed cells of the rat submandibular gland, Br. J. Pharmac., 82, 175–182, (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. Mann, J. Richter, and H. J. Karl, The influence of cholecystokinin and gastrin on human parotid kallikrein secretion, International Conference on Kallikreins - Kinins - Kininogens - Kininases, Abstract E.P.L., Munich (1981).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    S. F. Rabito, A. G. Scicli, V. Kher, and O. A. Carretero, Immunoreactive glandular kallikrein in rat plasma: A radioimmunoassay for its determination, Am. J. Physiol., 242, H602–H610, (1982).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Seto, S. F. Rabito, A. G. Scicli, and O. A. Carretero, Lack of evidence for the participation of tonin in the pathogenesis of one- kidney, one-clip renovascular hypertension, Circ. Res., 55, 580–584, (1984).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    L. E. Hokin and A. L. Sherwin, Protein secretion and phosphate turnover in the phospholipids in salivary glands in vitro, J. Physiol. (Lond), 135, 18–29, (1957).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. Yamamoto, H. Tanaka, K. Horiuchi, and J. Ueda, Release of renin from dog kidney cortex slices in vitro, Jap. J. Pharmc., 17, 685–686, (1967).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Garcia, G. Thibault, J. Gutkowska, and J. Genest, Release of tonin and of kallikrein by perfused rat submaxillary gland, Am. J. Physiol., 244, R228–R234, (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. D. Bhoola, P. F. Heap, and M. J. C. Lemon, The regulation of kallikrein secretion from isolated submandibular gland slices by neurotransmitters, cyclic neuleotides and calcium, Adv. Expt. Med. Biol., 70, 59–64, (1976).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Khullar, A. G. Scicli, O. A. Carretero, Purification and characterization of a new serine protease from rat submandibular gland, Fed. Proc., 43, 2067, (1984).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    F. Jacoby and C. R. Leeson, The postnatal development of the rat sub-maxillary gland, J. Anat., 93, 201–216, (1959).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. S. Redman and L. M. Sreebny, Morphologic and biochemical observations on the development of the rat parotid gland, Dev. Biol., 25, 248–279, (1979).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Subir R. Maitra
    • 1
  • Sara F. Rabito
    • 1
  • Oscar A. Carretero
    • 1
  1. 1.Hypertension Research DivisionHenry Ford HospitalDetroitUSA

Personalised recommendations