Kininogen as a Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein
Pregnancy induces marked changes in plasma protein concentrations. Some proteins are secreted by the placenta into the maternal circulation and are thus called pregnancy-specific plasma proteins. Pregnancy-specific beta-l-glycoprotein (SP1) was the first protein of this group.1 Other plasma proteins also undergo changes during normal pregnancy and in response to contraceptive doses of estrogens.2,3 In early studies several authors reported determination of kininogen during pregnancy, delivery and puerperium4–6 indicating increased kininogen during pregnancy, decreasing values during labor and increasing kininogen content in puerperium. In all these studies kininogen was determined by the estimation of the bradykinin equivalent by bioassay on the rat uterus or guinea pig ileum. Suzuki7 found in a preliminary report a 100% increase of plasma kininogen compared with non- pregnancy levels showing that bradykinin was not released from kininogen during the pregnancy periods. In particular interest has more recently been focused on the HMr (high molecular weight) kininogen due to its function as a cofactor in the activation of F XII and the onset of coagulation. Maki et al.8 reported increase of HMr kininogen during pregnancy and decrease with the start of labor which suggested that the vasoactive bradykinin was relesed during labor through the activation of plasma kallikrein and brought back to normal level after delivery. Similar findings were recently reported by Suzuki et al.9 applying the bradykinin equivalent to determine kininogen while Maki et al.8 were first to utilize immunological determination with HMr specific antiserum in pregnancy.
KeywordsPlasma Protein Concentration Plasma Kallikrein Single Radial Immunodiffusion Contraceptive Dose Pregnancy Level
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