Advertisement

Conditio Sine Qua Non for de Novo Emergence of New Genes and the Concept of Primordial Building Blocks

  • Susumu Ohno
  • Nozomu Mori
  • Takeshi Matsunaga
Part of the Stadler Genetics Symposia Series book series (SGSS)

Abstract

So long as a particular vital function is assigned to the single gene locus in the genome, all function-altering mutations are diligently eliminated by natural selection. Thus, the mechanism of gene duplication emerges as the prime means to create new genes with previously nonexistent functions (Ohno, 1970). Redundant copies of the existing gene created by this mechanism are largely ignored by natural selection, and while being ignored, they are free to accumulate function-altering mutations to emerge as new genes endowed with new functions. Indeed, the very> fact that nearly all the existing genes can be considered as members of different families by propinquity of their descents reveals the prime role this mechanism played in evolution; e.g., the serine protease family, β2-microglobulin family. Yet, this mechanism is very slow, inefficient and cumbersome as shall be pointed out shortly. Therefore, this mechanism is unfit to fulfill the organism’s need to cope with rapidly changing environments. In this paper, we shall point out that under certain conditions, new genes with new roles can emerge in a flash by two novel means.

Keywords

Polypeptide Chain Antifreeze Protein Balbiani Ring Alternative Reading Frame Redundant Copy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexander, F., Young, P.R., and Tilghman, S.M., 1984, Evolution of the albumin:α-fetoprotein ancestral gene from the amplification of a 27 nucleotide sequence, J. of Mol. Biol., 173:159–174Google Scholar
  2. Bowman, H., Hermodson, M., Hammond, C.A. and Motulsky, A.G., 1976, Analbuminemia in an American Indian girl, Clin. Genet., 9:513–526.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chien, Y., Gascoigne, N.R.J., Kavaler, J., Lee, N.E., and Davis, M.M., 1984, Somatic recombination in a murine T-cell receptor gene, Nature, 309:322–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chou, P.Y., and Fasman, G.D., 1978, Empirical predictions on protein conformation, Ann. Rev. Biochem., 47:251–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dayhoff, M.O., ed., 1972, “Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure,” National Biomedical Research Foundation, Silver Springs, Maryland.Google Scholar
  6. DeVries, A.L., 1982, Biological antifreeze agents in cold water fishes, Comp. Biochem. Biophysiol., 73A:627–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ferris, S.D., and Whitt, G.S., 1977, Loss of duplicate gene expression after polyploidisation, Nature, 265:258–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gojobori, T., and Yokoyama, S., 1985, Evolutionary rates of c-and v-mos genes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA, in press.Google Scholar
  9. Hansen, T.H., and Shreffler, D.C., 1976, Characterization of a constitutive variant of the murine serum protein allotype, Slp., J. Immunol., 117:1507–1513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Hoog, C., and Wieslander, L., 1984, Different evolutionary behavior of structually related, repetitive sequences occuring in the same Balbiani ring gene of Chiranomus tentans, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81:5165–5169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kabat, E.A., Wu, T.T., Bilofsky, H., Reid-Miller, M., and Perry, H., 1983, Sequences of proteins of immunological interest., U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Serv.’s, Natl. Inst, of Health, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  12. Kinoshita, S., Negoro, S., Murayama, M., Bisaria, V.S., Sawada, S., and Okada, H., 1977, 6-amino hexanoic acid cyclic dimer hydrolase. A new cyclic amide hydrolase produced by Acromobacter guttatus KI 72, Eur. J. Biochem, 80:489–495.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kinoshita, S., Terada, T., Taniguchi, T., Takene, Y., Masuda, S., Matsunaga, N., and Okada, H., 1981, Purification and characterization of 6-aminohexonic-acid-oligomer hydrolase of Flavobacterium sp. KI72, Europ. J. Biochem., 116:547–551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Mostov, K.E., Friedlander, M., and Blobel, G., 1984, The receptor for transepithelial transport of IgA and IgM contains multiple immunoglobulin-like domains, Nature, 308:37–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Muskavitch, M.A.T., and Hogness, D.S., 1982, An expandable gene that encodes a Drosophila glue protein is not expressed in variants lacking remote upstream sequences, Cell, 29:1041–1051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nagase, S., Simamune, K., and Shumiya, S., 1979, Albumin-deficient rat mutant, Science, 205:590–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Nishida, Y., Kataoka, T., Ishida, N., Nakai, S., Kishimoto, T., Bottcher, I., and Honjo, T., 1981, Cloning of mouse immunoglobulin ε gene and its location within the heavy chain gene cluster, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78:1581–1585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ohno, S., 1970, “Evolution by Gene Duplication,” Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg-Berlin-New York.Google Scholar
  19. Ohno, S., 1972, So much “junk” DNA in our genome, in: “Evolution of Genetic Systems,” H.H. Smith, ed., Brookhaven Symp. No. 26, Gordon and Breach, Inc., New York-London-Paris, pp. 366–370.Google Scholar
  20. Ohno, S., 1981, Original domain for the serum albumin family arose from repeated sequences, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 78:7657–7661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ohno, S., 1984a, Birth of a unique enzyme from an alternative reading frame of the preexisted internally repetitious coding sequence, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81:2421–2425.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ohno, S., 1984b, Segmental homology and internal repetitiousness identified in putative nucleic acid polymerase and human hepatitis B surface antigen of human hepatitis B virus, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81:3781–3785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ohno, S., Matsunaga, T., and Wallace, R.B., 1982, Identification of the 48-base-long primoridal building block sequence of mouse immunoglobulin variable region genes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 79:1999–2002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ohno, S., Matsunaga, T., Epplen, J.T., Itakura, K., and Wallace, R.B., 1982, Identification of the 45-base-long primordial building block of the entire class I major histocompatibility complex antigen gene, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 79:6342–6346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ohno, S., and Epplen, J., 1983, The primitive code and repeats of base oligomers as the primordial protein-encoding sequence, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 80:3391–3395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ohno, S., and Yazaki, A., 1983, Simple construction of human c-myc gene implicated in B-cell neoplasma and its relationship with avian v-myc and human lymphokins, Scand. J. Immunol., 18:373–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ohno, S., Matsunaga, T., and Lee, A.D., 1984, The invariably present Tryptophane loop as the core of all divergent antigen-binding pockets, Scand. J. Immunol., 20:377–388.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Okada, H., Negoro, S., Kumura, H., and Nakamura, S., 1983, Evolutionary adaptation of plasmid-encoded enzymes for degrading nylon oligomers, Nature, 306:203–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Saito, H., Kranz, D.M., Takagaki, Y., Hayday, A., Eisen, H.N., and Tonegawa, S.,1984, Complete primary structure of a heterodimeric T-cell receptor deduced from cDNA sequences, Nature, 309:757–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Saul, F.A., Amzel, L.M., and Poljak, R.J., 1978, Preliminary refinement and structural analysis of the Fab fragments from human immunoglobulin New at 2.0 A resolution, J. Biol. Chem., 253:585–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Shimizu, A., Takahashi, N., Yamawaki-Kataoka, Y., Nishida, Y., Kataoka, T., and Honjo, T., 1981, Ordering of mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain genes by molecular cloning, Nature, 289:149–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Siu, G., Clark, S.P., Yoshikai, Y., Malissen, M., Yanagi, Y., Strauss, E., Mak, T., and Hood, L., 1984, The human T-cell antigen receptor is encoded by variable diversity and joining gene segments that rearrange to generate a complete V gene, Cell, 37:393–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sumegi, J., Wieslander, L., and Daneholt, B., 1982, A hierachic arrangement of the repetitive sequences in the Balbi-ani ring 2 gene of Chivonomus tentans, Cell, 30:579–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tanabe, Y., 1980, Phylogenetic relationships of dog breeds especially of Japanese native dog breeds determined by the blood protein polymorphisms, Reports of Japan. Soc. Res. on Native Stocks., 9:169–227.Google Scholar
  35. Travers, P., Blundell, T.L., Sternberg M.J.E., and Bodmer, W.F., 1984, Structural and evolutionary analysis of HLA-D-region products, Nature, 310:235–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Twining, S.S., and Attassi, M.Z., 1978, Antibody-combining sites can be mimicked synthetically: surface-simulation synthesis of the immunoglobulin New combining site of the γ-hydroxyl derivative of vitamin κ1, J. Biol. Chem., 253:5259–5262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Yamada, Y., Avvedimento, V.E., Murdryj, M., Ohkubo, H., Vogeli, G., Irani, M., Pastan, I., and Crombrugge, B. de, 1980, The collagen gene: evidence for its evolutionary assembly by amplification of DNA segment containing an exon of 54 BP, Cell, 22:287–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yazaki, A., and Ohno, S., 1983, The recurrence of 49 base deca-mers, nonomers and octamers within mouse Ig CμH genes and its primordial building block, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 80:2338–2340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ycas, M., 1972, De novo origin of periodic proteins, J. Mol. Evol., 2:17–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zinkernagel, R.M., and Doherty, P.D., 1974, Immunological surveillance against altered self components by sensitized T-lymphocytes in lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Nature, 251:547–549.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susumu Ohno
    • 1
  • Nozomu Mori
    • 1
  • Takeshi Matsunaga
    • 1
  1. 1.Beckman Research InstituteThe City of HopeDuarteUSA

Personalised recommendations