Structure and Function of the Human Retroviruses

  • Lee Ratner
  • Robert C. Gallo
Part of the Stadler Genetics Symposia Series book series (SGSS)

Abstract

Retroviruses, though discovered and studied in a number of animal species since the beginning of this century (Rous, 1911; Gross, 1951), have only recently been demonstrated in humans (Gallo, 1984). The delay in their identification in humans is due to differences in the biological properties of the human retroviruses, designated human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV), and a few other animal retroviruses such as bovine leukemia virus (BLV) from the majority of studied species. First, HTLV and BLV are unlike most avian and murine retroviruses in that abundant virus replication and viremia do not accompany the development of a tumor (Weiss et al., 1982; Wong-Staal et al., 1984). Thus, in order to detect the virus, it was important to develop methods for in vitro cultivation of cells derived from human tumors, allowing for activation and amplification of these viruses. These efforts were first applied to T lymphocytic tumors and their success was dependent upon the identification and utilization of T-cell growth factor (TCGF), which is also known as interleukin 2 (IL 2) (Morgan et al., 1976; Mier et al., 1980; Poiesz et al., 1980a, b, 1981).

Keywords

Hepatitis Lymphoma Codon Leukemia Manganese 

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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lee Ratner
    • 1
  • Robert C. Gallo
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Tumor Cell BiologyNational Cancer InstituteBethesdaUSA

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