Time Course of the Effect of 4-Hydroperoxycyclophosphamide on Limb Differentiation in Vitro

  • Barbara F. Hales
  • Pierre Brissette
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 197)


Cyclophosphamide is a commonly used anti-tumor and immunosuppressive agent. It is also mutagenic and teratogenic in a variety of species. Studies of the embryo have demonstrated that exposure to cyclophosphamide during organogenesis results in a spectrum of malformations that include exencephaly or hydrocephaly, open eyes, cleft palate, phocomelia, adactyly, syndactyly, polydactyly and kinky tail as well as disturbances in skeletal ossification (Gibson & Becker, 1968; Mirkes, 1985). Cyclophosphamide is usually teratogenic in a narrow dose range — lower doses have no apparent effects while higher doses are highly embryolethal.


Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Cleft Palate Buthionine Sulfoximine Phosphoramide Mustard Limb Morphology 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara F. Hales
    • 1
  • Pierre Brissette
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics and Centre for The Study of ReproductionMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

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