Time Course of the Effect of 4-Hydroperoxycyclophosphamide on Limb Differentiation in Vitro
Cyclophosphamide is a commonly used anti-tumor and immunosuppressive agent. It is also mutagenic and teratogenic in a variety of species. Studies of the embryo have demonstrated that exposure to cyclophosphamide during organogenesis results in a spectrum of malformations that include exencephaly or hydrocephaly, open eyes, cleft palate, phocomelia, adactyly, syndactyly, polydactyly and kinky tail as well as disturbances in skeletal ossification (Gibson & Becker, 1968; Mirkes, 1985). Cyclophosphamide is usually teratogenic in a narrow dose range — lower doses have no apparent effects while higher doses are highly embryolethal.
KeywordsAlkaline Phosphatase Activity Cleft Palate Buthionine Sulfoximine Phosphoramide Mustard Limb Morphology
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