p-Nitrosophenetole: A Reactive Intermediate of Phenacetin that Binds to Protein
Although phenacetin is an effective analgesic, in a small number of chronic abusers it has been proven to be toxic causing interstitial nephritis and progressive reduction in kidney size and function (1). Moreover, a signficant number of tumors of the urinary tract have been reported in the same population (2). Phenacetin also produces methemoglobinemia and hemolysis in genetically susceptible individuals (3). Because of its toxicities, and in particular its known tumorigenicity in animals and suspected carcinogenicity in human, it has been removed from the U.S. market.
KeywordsInterstitial Nephritis Microsomal Protein Reactive Metabolite Analgesic Abuse Suspected Carcinogenicity
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 8.P. Eyer and M. Schneller, Reactions of the nitroso analogue of chloramphenicol with reduced glutathione, Biochem. Pharmacol. 32: 1029–1036 (1983).Google Scholar
- 12.E. C. Miller and J. A. Miller, Reactive metabolites as key intermediates in pharmacologic and toxicologic responses. Examples from chemical carcinogenesis, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 126: 1–21 (1982).Google Scholar
- 13.J. R. Mitchell, W. Z. Potter, J. A. Hinson, W. R. Snodgrass, J. A. Timbrell, and J. R. Gillette, Toxic drug reactions, in: “Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology,” 0. Eichiles, A. Farah, H. Herken, and A. D. Welch, eds., Vol. XXVIII/3, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 383–419 (1975).Google Scholar