Biological Reactive Intermediates of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids
The hepatotoxic and carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) present in Senecio and a number of other plant genera are responsible for the poisoning of humans and animals in many parts of the world (Hirono, 1981; Huxtable, 1979; McLean, 1970). Fatalities or severe cases of poisoning in humans have resulted from the consumption of grain contaminated by PA containing seeds or by drinking supposedly therapeutic herbal teas that contain PAs (Hirono, 1981; Huxtable, 1980; McLean, 1970). There is also increasing evidence that the PAs are excreted in toxic form in the milk of cows and goats consuming PA containing plants such as tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) (Dickinson et al., 1976; Luthy et al., 1983; Miranda et al., 1981; Deinzer et al., 1982).
KeywordsHigh Performance Liquid Chromatography High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Microsomal Metabolism Mouse Liver Microsome
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Buhler, D. R., Williams, D. E., and Kedzierski, B., 1985, to be published.Google Scholar
- Bull, L. B., Culvenor, C. C. J., and Dick, A. T., 1968, “The Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids,” John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
- Eastmann, D. F., and Segall, H. J., 1982, A new pyrrolizidine alkaloid metabolite, 19-hydroxysenecionine isolated from mouse hepatic microsomes in vitro. Drug Metab. Dispos., 10: 696.Google Scholar
- Fennell, T. R., Robertson, K. A., Miller, J. A., Miller, E. C., and Stewart, B. C., 1985, The hepatocarcinogenicity in mice of dehydroretronecine (DR) and its reaction with deoxyguanonine (dGUO) to yield unstable adducts. Proc. Am. Assoc. Cancer Res., 26: 83.Google Scholar
- Karchesy, J. J., and Deinzer, M. L., 1981, Kinetics of alkylation reactions of pyrrolizidine alkaloid derivatives. Hetrocyclics, 16: 631.Google Scholar
- Mattocks, A. R., 1969, Dihydropyrrolizine derivatives from unsaturated pyrrolizidine alkaloids. J. Chem. Soc., (C) 1155.Google Scholar
- Mattocks, A. R., 1972a, Toxicity and metabolism of Senecio alkaloids, in: “Phytochemical Ecology,” J. B. Harborne, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Peterson, J. E., and Culvenor, C. C. J., 1983, Hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, in: “Pytochemical Ecology,” J. B. Harborne, ed., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
- Ramsdell, H. S., and Buhler, D. R., 1985, to be published.Google Scholar
- Ziegler, D. M., 1984, Metabolic oxygenation of organic nitrogen and sulfur compounds, in: “Drug Metabolism and Drug Toxicity,” J. R. Mitchell and M. G. Horning, eds., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar