Memory in Chronic Diseases

  • Aman U. Khan
Part of the Critical Issues in Psychiatry book series (CIPS)


Chronic anoxia of the brain may result from inadequate cerebral perfusion and from poor oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. A large number of chronic diseases of the lungs, the cardiovascular system, and the blood can produce chronic anoxia and impairment of cerebral metabolism leading to disturbances of cognitive and memory functions. The clinical manifestations of anoxia vary with the duration and the rate at which anoxia develops. Acute sudden anoxia causes confusion, disorientation, and delirium. Amnesia for the duration of the acute condition, such as cardiac arrest, may persist after the recovery. In some cases, acute anoxia of sufficient duration will result in extensive brain damage and dementia. Chronic anoxia produces slow changes in cognitive functions and personality. Impairment of recent memory functions are frequently more apparent than impairment of cognitive abilities. Changes in personality usually begin with increased irritability and decreased interest in social activities and career achievements.


Neuropsychiatric Symptom Serum Sodium Level Remote Memory Mental Symptom Mental Status Change 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams R, Cole M: The acquired (non-Wilsonian) chronic hepatocerebral degeneration. Medicine 1965; 44: 345–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alfrey AC, Mishell JM, Burks J, et al: Syndrome of dyspraxia and multifocal seizures associated with chronic hemodialysis. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 1972; 18: 257–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Artunkal S, Togrol B: Psychological Studies in Hyperthyroidism in Brain Thyroid Relationship. Boston, Little Brown, 1964.Google Scholar
  4. Asher R: Myxedematous madness. Br Med J 1949; 2: 555–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Austen FK, Carmichael MW, Adams RD: Neurologic manifestations of chronic pulmonary insufficiency. N Engl J Med 1957; 257: 579–590.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bluestone H: Hyperthyroidism masqueraded as functional psychosis. Am Pract Digest Treat 1957; 8: 557–558.Google Scholar
  7. Burks JS, Huddlestone J, Alfrey AC, et al: A fatal encephalopathy in chronic hemodialysis patients. Lancet 1976; 1: 764–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bursten B: Psychosis associated with thyrotoxicosis. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1961; 4: 267–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cleghorn RA: Adrenal cortical insufficiency: Psychological and neurological observations. Can Med Assoc J 1951; 65: 449–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Crowell RM, Tew JM, Mark VH: Aggressive dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus. Neurology 1973; 23: 461–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Engel G, Margolin S: Clinical correlation of electroencephalogram with carbohydrate metabolism. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1941; 45: 890.Google Scholar
  12. Fitz TE, Hallman BL: Mental changes associated with hyperparathyroidism. Arch Intern Med 1952; 89: 547–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Ginn HE: Neurobehavioral dysfunction in uremia. Kidney Int 1975; 217 (suppl 2): S217–221.Google Scholar
  14. Graves RI: Newly observed affection of the thyroid gland in females. Med Surg 1835; 7:516–517. Hakim S: Some Observations on CSF Pressure: Hydrocephalic Syndrome in Adults with “Normal” CSF Pressure, thesis. Javeriana University School of Medicine, Bogota, Columbia, 1964.Google Scholar
  15. Hartman FA, Beck G, Thorn S: Improvement in nervous and mental states under cortin therapy. J Nery Ment Dis 1933; 77: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Haruda F, Friedman JH, Ganti SR, et al: Rapid resolution of organic mental syndrome in sickle cell anemia in response to exchange transfusion. Neurology 1981; 31: 1015–1016.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Johnson W: Psychosis and hyperthyroidism, J Nery Ment Dis 1928; 67: 558–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Judge TG: The interrelationship between physical and mental disease in the elderly, in Kay D, Walk A (eds): Recent Developments in Psychogeriatrics. London, British Journal of Psychiatry Special Publication #6, 1971, chap 11.Google Scholar
  19. Karpati G, Frame B: Neuropsychiatric disorders in primary hyperparathyroidism. Arch Neurol 1964; 10: 387–440.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Krop HD, Block AJ, Cohen E: Neuropsychologic effects of continuous oxygen therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chest 1973; 64: 317–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lederman RJ, Henry CE: Progressive dialysis encephalopathy. Ann Neurol 1978; 4:199–204. Liz T, Whitehorn J: Psychiatric problems in thyroid clinic. JAMA 1949; 139: 698–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Michael RP, Gibbons JL: Interrelationships between the endocrine system and neuropsychiatry. Int Rev Neurobiol 1963; 3: 243–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Olivarus Bde F, Roder E: Reversible psychosis and dementia in myxedema. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1970; 46: 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Olsen S: The brain in uremia. Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 1961; vol 36. (Suppl 156) Google Scholar
  25. Petersen P: Psychiatric disorders in primary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metabol 1968; 28: 1491–1495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Reed E, Sherlock S, Laidlow J et al: Neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with chronic liver disease and an extensive portal-systemic collateral circulation. Q J Med 1967; 36:135–150.Google Scholar
  27. Reitan RM: Intellectual functions in myxedema. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1953; 69: 436–449.Google Scholar
  28. Rice E, Gendelrnan S: Psychiatric aspects of normal pressure hydrocephalus. JAMA 1973; 233:409-412.Google Scholar
  29. Robbins L, Vinson D: Objective psychological assessment of the thyrotoxic patient and response to treatment: Preliminary report. J Clin Endocrinol 1960; 20: 120–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rowntree L, Snell A: Mayo Clinic Monograph. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1931.Google Scholar
  31. Schon M, Sutherland A, Rawson R: Hormones and neurosis: The psychological effects of thyroid deficiency, in Proceedings of 3rd World Congress in Psychiatry. Montreal, McGill University Press, 1961.Google Scholar
  32. Soeters PB, Fischer JE: Insulin, glucagon, amino acid imbalance, and hepatic encephalopathy. Lancet 1976; 2: 880–882.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stoll WA: Die Psychiatric des Morbus. Stuttgart, Addison, Thieme, 1953.Google Scholar
  34. Summerskill WH, Davidson E, Sherlock S et al: Neuropsychiatric syndrome associated with hepatic cirrhosis and extensive portal collateral circulation. Q J Med 1956; 25:245–266.Google Scholar
  35. Whybrow PC, Prange AJ Jr, Treadway CR: Mental changes accompanying thyroid gland dysfunction. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1969; 20: 48–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aman U. Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.Southern Illinois University School of MedicineSpringfield IllinoisUSA

Personalised recommendations