Memory in Degenerative Diseases of the Nervous System

  • Aman U. Khan
Part of the Critical Issues in Psychiatry book series (CIPS)


A large number of degenerative processes affect the brain causing impairment of cognitive and emotional functions. Identifiable patterns of neurological deficits are produced by different degenerative diseases as they affect different parts of the brain. However, deficits in cognition and emotions are much more global and their presence rarely localizes a lesion in specific parts of the brain. Albert and associates (1974) suggested that most of the degenerative diseases of the CNS may be divided functionally into two broad groups depending on whether they predominantly affect the cerebral cortex or the subcortical structures. The terms cortical and subcortical dementia imply patterns of impairment in cognitive and emotional functions.


Degenerative Disease Progressive Supranuclear Palsy Senile Dementia Demented Patient Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albert ML: Subcortical dementia, in Katzman R, Terry R, Bick K (eds): Alzheimer’s Disease: Senile Dementia and Related Disorders. New York; Raven Press, 1978, pp 173–180.Google Scholar
  2. Albert ML, Feldman RG, Willis AL: The “subcortical dementia” of progressive supranuclear palsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1974; 37: 121–130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albert ML, Butters N, Brandt J: Patterns of remote memory in amnesic and demented patients. Arch Neural 1981; 38: 495–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alvord EC Jr: The pathology of Parkinsonism. Part II. An interpretation with special references to other changes in the aging brain, in McDowell FH, Markham CH (eds): Recent Advances in Parkinson’s Disease. Philadelphia; FA Davis, 1971, pp 131–161.Google Scholar
  5. Aminoff M, Marshall J, Smith E, et al: Pattern of intellectual impairment in Huntington’s chorea. Psychol Med 1975; 5: 169–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beard AW: The association of hepatolenticular degeneration with schizophrenia. ACTA Psychiatr Neurol 1959; 34: 411–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Behan PO, Feldman RG: Serum proteins, amyloid and Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1970; 18: 792–797.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Berg L, Hughes C, Cuben L, et al: Mild senile dementia of Alzheimer type: Research diagnostic criteria, recruitment, and description of a study population. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1982; 45: 926–968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boller F, Mizutani T, Roessmann V, et al: Parkinson disease, dementia and Alzheimer disease: Clinicopathological correlations. Ann Neurol 1980; 7: 329–335.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bolton N, Brutton PG, Savage R: Some normative data on the WAIS and its indices in an aged population. J Clin Psychol 1966; 22: 184–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown G, Wilson W: Parkinsonism and depression. South Med J 1972; 65: 540–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butters N, Cermak L: Alcoholic Korsakoff’s Syndrome. New York, Academic Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  13. Butters N, Sax D, Montgomery K, et al: Comparison of the neuropsychological deficits associated with early and advanced Huntington’s disease. Arch Neurol 1978; 35: 585–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butters N, Albert M, Sax D: Investigations of the memory disorders of patients with Huntington’s disease. Adv Neurol 1979; 23: 203–212.Google Scholar
  15. Caine E, Ebert M, Weingartner H: An outline for the analysis of dementia. The memory disorder of Huntington’s disease. Neurology 1977; 27: 1087–1092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Caine E, Hunt R, Weingartner H, et al: Huntington’s dementia, clinical and neuropsychological features. Arch Neurol 1978; 35: 377–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caird WK, Hannah F: Short-term memory disorders in elderly psychiatric patients. Dis New Syst 1964; 25: 564–568.Google Scholar
  18. Celesia G, Wanamaker W: Psychiatric disturbances in Parkinson’s disease. Dis New Syst 1972; 33: 577–583.Google Scholar
  19. Cleveland S, Dysinger D: Mental deterioration in senile psychosis. J Abnorm Soc Psychol 1944; 39: 368–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Crapper, DR, Krishnan SS, Quittkat S: Aluminum, neurofibrillary degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Brain 1976; 99: 67–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cummings JL, Benson DF, LoVerme S Jr: Reversible dementia. JAMA 1980; 243: 2434–2439.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davies DL: The intelligence of patients with Friedreich’s ataxia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1949; 12: 34–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dewhurst K, Oliver J, Trick K, et al: Neuropsychiatric aspects of Huntington’s disease. Con fin Neurol 1969; 31: 258–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Diller L, Riklan M: Psychosocial factors in Parkinson’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc 1956; 4: 1291 1300.Google Scholar
  25. Dixon JC: Cognitive structure in senile conditions with some suggestions for developing a brief screening test of mental status. J Gerontal 1965; 20: 41–49.Google Scholar
  26. Dooling EC, Schoene W, Richardson E Jr: Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome. Arch Neurol 1974; 30: 7083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Elizan TS: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and parkinsonism-dementia complex of guam. Arch Neurol 1966; 14: 356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ernst B, Dalby MA, Dalby A: Gnostic-praxic disturbances in presenile dementia. ACTA Neurol Scand 1970; 46 (suppl 43): 99–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gilman S, Sorenstein S: Familial amyotrophic dystonic paraplegia. Brain 1964; 87: 51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Goldstein NP, Ewert J, Randall R, et al: Psychiatric aspects of Wilson’s disease (hepatolenticular degeneration): Results of psychometric tests during long-term therapy. Am J Psychiatry 1968; 124: 1555–1561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Greenfield JG: Spinocerebellar Degenerations. Oxford, England, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1954.Google Scholar
  32. Gruenberg E: Epidemiological studies, in Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds): Alzheimer Disease, Senile Dementia and Related Disorders. New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp 323–326.Google Scholar
  33. Gustafson L, Hagberg B: Dementia with onset in the presenile period: A cross-sectional study. ACTA Psychiatry Scand (suppl) 1975; 257: 1–36.Google Scholar
  34. Hallervorden H, Spatz M: Eigenartige erkrankung im extrapyramidalen system mit besonderer beteiligung des globus pallidus and der substantia nigra. Zentralbl Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 1922; 79: 254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Heston LL: Genetic studies of dementia: With emphasis on Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s neuropathology, in Mortimer JA, Schulman LM (eds): The Epidemiology of Dementia. New York, Oxford University Press, 1981, pp 101–114.Google Scholar
  36. Huntington G: On Chorea. Med Surg Reporter 1872; 26: 317–321.Google Scholar
  37. Inglis J: An experimental study learning and memory function in elderly psychiatric patients. J Ment Sci 1957; 103: 796–803.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Inglis J: Learning, retention and conceptual usuage in elderly patients with memory disorder. J Abnor Soc Psychol 1959; 59: 210–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jackson J, Jankovic J, Ford J: Progressive supranuclear palsy: Clinical features and response to treatment in 16 patients. Ann Neurol 1983; 13: 273–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Josiassen R, Cury L, Roemer R, et al: Patterns of intellectual deficit in Huntington’s disease. J Clin Neuropsychol 1982; 4: 173–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kendrick D, Post F: Differences in cognitive status between healthy, psychiatrically ill and diffusely brain-damaged elderly subjects. Br J Psychiatry 1967; 113: 75–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Knehr CA, Beam AG: Psychological impairment in Wilson’s disease. J Nery Ment Dis 1956; 124: 251–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lishman WA: Organic Psychiatry. London, Blackwell Scientific Publications, 1978.Google Scholar
  44. Loranger AW, Goodell H: Intellectual impairment in Parkinson syndrome. Brain 1972; 95: 405412.Google Scholar
  45. Mathews CG, Haaland K: The effect of symptom duration on cognitive and motor performance in Parkinsonism. Neurology 1979; 29: 951–956.Google Scholar
  46. Mayeux R, Stern Y, Rosen J, et al: Depression, intellectual impairment and Parkinson disease. Neurology 1981; 31: 645–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. McHugh P, Folstein M: Psychiatric syndromes of Huntington’s chorea: A clinical and phenomenologic study, in Benson D, Blumer D, (eds): Psychiatric Aspects of Neurologic Disease. New York, Grune and Stratton, 1975, pp 267–285.Google Scholar
  48. Metter EJ, Reige W, Hanson W, et al: Comparison of metabolic rates, language and memory in subcortical aphasias. Brain Lang 1983; 19: 33–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Miller E: On the nature of memory disorder in presenile dementia. Neuropsychology 1971; 9: 7581.Google Scholar
  50. Miller E: Short-and long-term memory in patients with presenile dementia (Alzheimer’s disease). Psychol Med 1973; 3: 221–224.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Miller E, Hagen D: Some characteristics of verbal behavior in presenile dementia. Psychol Med 1975; 5: 255–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mortimer JA, Pirozzolo FJ, Hansch EC, et al: Relationship of motor symptoms to intellectual deficits in Parkinson disease. Neurology 1982; 32: 133–137.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Nandy K: Brain-reactive antibodies in aging and senile dementia; in Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds): Alzheimer Disease, Senile Dementia and Related Disorders. New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp 503–507.Google Scholar
  54. Orme JE: Non-verbal and verbal in normal old age, senile dementia and elderly depression. J Gerontol 1957; 12: 408–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Reed H, Lindsay A, Silversides JL, et al: The uveoencephalitic syndrome or Vogt-KoyanagiHarada disease. Can Med Assoc J 1958; 79: 451–459.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Reitan RM, Boll TJ: Intellectual and cognitive functions in Parkinson’s disease. J Consult Clin Psychol 1971; 37: 364–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rezdilsky B, Cummings J, Huston A: Hallervorden-Spatz disease—Late infantile and adult types, report of two cases. ACTA Neuropathol 1968; 10: 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rockford G: A study of naming errors in dysphasic and demented patients. Neuropsychology 1971; 9: 437–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Roth M: Epidemiological studies, in Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds): Alzheimer’s Disease, Senile Dementia and Related Disorders. New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp 337–339.Google Scholar
  60. Sacks OW, Aguilar MJ, Brown WJ: Hallervorden-Spatz disease. Its pathogenesis and place among the axonal dystrophies. ACTA Neuropathol 1966; 6: 164–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Sjogren R, Sjogren H, Lindgren A: Morbus Alzheimer and morbus Pick. ACTA Psychiatr Neurol Scand 1952; (supple 82 ): 1–152.Google Scholar
  62. Squire L, Wetzel C, Slater P: Anterograde amnesia following ECT: An analysis of the beneficial effects of partial information. Neuropsychologia 1978; 16: 339–348.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Steele JC, Richardson JC, Olszewski J: Progressive supranuclear palsy. Arch Neurol 1964; 10: 333–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Terry RD, Peck A, De Teresa R, et al: Some morphometric aspects of the brain is senile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Ann Neurol 1981; 10: 184–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tomlinson BE: The pathology of dementia; in Wells CE (ed): Dementia ed 2. Philadelphia, FA Davis, 1977, pp 113–153.Google Scholar
  66. Trimble MR, Cummings J: Neuropsychiatric disturbances following brainstem lesions. Br J Psychiatry 1981; 138: 56–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Warrington E, Weiskrantz L: Amnesic syndrome: Consolidation or retrieval? Nature 1970; 228: 628–630.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Weingartner H, Caine E, Ebert M: Encoding processes, learning and recall in Huntington’s disease. Adv Neurol 1979; 23: 215–216.Google Scholar
  69. White P, Goodhardt M, Keet J, et al: Neocortical cholinergic neurons in elderly people. Lancet 1977; 1: 668–6670.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wilson RS, Kasniak A, Klawans H, et al: High speed memory scanning in Parkinsonism. Cortex 1980; 16: 67–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Wilson SA: Progressive lenticular degeneration: A familial nervous disease associated with cirrhosis of the liver. Brain 1912; 34: 295–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Yunis JY, Bloomfield CD, Ensrud K: All patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia may have a chromosonal defect. N Engl J Med 1981; 305: 135–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aman U. Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.Southern Illinois University School of MedicineSpringfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations