Drugs Influencing Learning and Memory
Prior to the 20th century, there were no true scientific studies of the effects of drugs on human memory, only anecdotal information such as De Quincey’s treatise on opium and some scattered clinical observations on the various mental effects of such substances as alcohol, coffee, and anesthetics. The term “psychopharmacology” was coined in 1920 to denote the study of the effects of drugs in experimental psychiatry, but the literature on psychopharmacology remained sparse until the discovery and introduction of the major tranquilizers in the 1950s beginning with chlorpromazine and reserpine. As the psychopharmacology literature began to increase at exponential rates during the 1950s, a subliterature devoted to the effects of drugs on learning and memory processes began to accumulate. Prior to the mid 1960s, most of the subliterature dealt with the effects of drugs on learning processes rather than memory processes since the drug was usually administered prior to a learning task. In addition, much of the literature published prior to 1965 on the effects of drugs on learning and memory processes (animal as well as human) was badly flawed methodologically by the absence of adequate control groups and the lack of double-blind procedures.
KeywordsMemory Process Retrograde Amnesia Cerebral Vasodilator Amnesic Effect Magnesium Pemoline
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Agranoff BW: Biochemical strategies in the study of memory formation, in The Nervous System. New York, Raven Press, 1975, vol 1: The Basic Neurosciences,pp. 585–589.Google Scholar
- Agranoff BW: Learning and memory: Approaches to correlating behavioral and biochemical events, in Seigal G, Albers R, Agranoff B (eds): Basic Neurochemistry, ed 2. Little Brown & Co., 1976, pp. 765–784.Google Scholar
- Agranoff BW, Springer AD, Quarton GC: Biochemistry of memory and learning, in Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds): Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Amsterdam, North Holland Publishing Co, 1976, vol 27, pp. 459–476.Google Scholar
- Allen SR: REM sleep deprivation and protein synthesis inhibition effects on human memory, in Levine P, Koella W (eds): Sleep. New York, Karger, 1974, pp. 373–376.Google Scholar
- Ban TA: Vasodilators, stimulants and anabolic agents in the treatment of geropsychiatric patients, in Lipton MA, Demascio A, Killam K (eds): Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress. New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp. 1525–1533.Google Scholar
- Burrell HR, Dokas LA, Springer AD: Progress in biochemical approaches to learning and memory, in Lipton MA, Demascio A, Killam K (eds): Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress. New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp. 623–635.Google Scholar
- Crow, RJ, Bursill AE: An investigation into the effects of methamphetamine on short-term memory in man, in Costa E, Garattini S (eds): Amphetamine and Related Compounds. New York, Raven Press, 1970, pp. 889–895.Google Scholar
- Gililand AR, Nelson D: The effects of coffee on certain mental and physiological functions. J Gen Psychol 1939; 21: 339–348.Google Scholar
- McDonald RT: Drug treatment of senile dementia, in Wheatley D (ed): Psychopharmacology of Old Age. New York, Oxford University Press, 1982, pp. 113–138.Google Scholar
- Squire LR: Pharamacology of learning and memory; in Glick SD, Goldfarb F (eds): Behavioral Pharmacology. Mosby, 1976, pp. 258–282.Google Scholar
- Tagliente T: Regional Effects of Barbiturates on Monoamine Oxidase Type A and Type B Activity in the Mouse Brain, PhD dissertation. City University of New York, 1979.Google Scholar
- Zornetzer SF: Neurotransmitter modulation and memory: A new neuropharmacological phrenology? in Lipton MA, Demascio A, Killam K (eds): Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress. New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp. 637–649.Google Scholar