Advertisement

Memory in Head Trauma

  • Aman U. Khan
Part of the Critical Issues in Psychiatry book series (CIPS)

Abstract

The head is injured in more than two thirds of all automobile accidents and head injury is the cause of death in about 70% of fatal accidents (Partington, 1960). The National Center for Health Statistics estimated 8 to 9 million new cases of head injuries per year (Karlsberk, 1980). Several small studies that have collected data from well-defined geographic localities provide better and more reliable information on the characteristics of these injuries. One such study, carried out by the University of Virginia, collected prospective data on 1248 head injury patients from a well-defined geographic area. There was an overall incidence of 24 head injuries per 10,000 population. Males comprised twice as many cases as females. The incidence was highest in the age group 15 through 19 with 42 head injuries per 10,000 population. The second highest-risk age group was 75 and over with an incidence of 30 per 10,000. The lowest incidence occurred.in children 5 through 9 years of age. The majority of the injuries from automobile accidents occurred on small two-lane roads and secondary highways. Of all the patients studied, 93% suffered from some period of unconsciousness following head injury. The majority of the patients (54%) were unconscious for a period of 30 min or less. Twenty-five percent of the patients were still comatose at the time of admission to the emergency department, with a score of 8 or less on the Glasgo Coma Scale (GCS). The remaining patients had altered levels of consciousness, with 49% sustaining only minor injuries with scores of 12 or more on the GCS.

Keywords

Head Injury Head Trauma Brain Damage Severe Head Injury Skull Fracture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aita JA: Reitan RM: Psychotic reactions in the late recovery period following brain injury. Am J Psychiatry 1948; 105: 161–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Bond MR: Assessment of the psychosocial outcome of severel head injury. Acta Neurochir 1976; 34: 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brooks DN: Recognition memory after head injury: A signal detection analysis. Cortex 1974; 10: 224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Brooks DN: Long-and short-term memory in head injury patients. Cortex 1975; 11: 329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Brooks DN: Wechsler Memory Scale performance and its relationship to brain damage after severe closed head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1976; 39: 593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brooks DN: Cognitive sequelae in relationship to early indices of severity of brain damage after severe blunt head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980; 43: 529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clifton G, Grossman R, Makela M, et al: Neurologic course and correlated computerized tomography findings after severe closed head injury. J Neurosurg 1980; 52: 611–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Crovitz H, Horn R, Walter D: Interrelationships among retrograde amnesia, PTA and time since head injury: A retrospective study. Cortex 1983; 19: 407–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Davidson K, Bagley CR: Schizophrenia-like psychoses associated with organic disorders of the central nervous system: A review of the literature, in Herrington RN (ed): Current Problems in Neuropsychiatry. London, British Journal of Psychiatry Special Publication No. 4, 1969, pp 113–184.Google Scholar
  10. Denker SJ: Closed head injury in twins. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1960; 2: 569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Denny-Brown D, Russell W: Experimental cerebral concussion. Brain 1941; 64: 93–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eson ME, Bourke R: Assessment of information processing deficits after serious head injury. Presented at the 8th Annual Meeting of the International Neuropsychological Society, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  13. Eson M, Yen J, Bourke R: Assessment of recovery from serious head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1978; 41: 1036.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fortuny LA: Measuring the duration of post-traumatic amnesia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1980; 35: 377–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gallbraith S, Smith J: Acute traumatic intracranial hematoma without skull fracture. Lancet 1976; 1: 501–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gennavelli TA, Thibault L, Ommaya A: Pathophysiologic response to rotational and translational acceleration of the head, in 16th Stapp Car Crash Conference. New York, Society of Automotive Engineers, 1972, pp 296–308.Google Scholar
  17. Groat RA, Windle W, Magoun H: Functional and structural changes in the monkey’s brain during and after concussion. J Neurosurg 1945; 2: 26–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Groher M: Language and memory disorder following closed head trauma. J Speech Hear Res 1977; 20: 212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Harris J Jr: High yield criteria and skull radiography. J Am Coll Emerg Physicians 1979; 8: 438–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Henry R, Taylor P: Cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea and otorhinorrhea following closed head injury. J Laryngol Otol 1978; 92: 743–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jannett B, Bond M: Assessment of outcome after severe brain damage. A practical scale. Lancet 1975; 1: 480–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jannett B, Teasdale G, Braakman R: Progress in a series of patients with severe head injury. Neurosurgery 1979; 4: 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Karlsberk WD: The National Head and Spinal Cord Injury Survey: Major findings. J Neural 1980; 53: 519.Google Scholar
  24. Klove H, Cleeland CS: The relationship of neuropsychological impairment to other indices of severity of head injury. Scand J Rehahil Med 1972; 4: 55.Google Scholar
  25. Lauria AR: Traumatic Aphasia: Its Syndromes, Psychology and Treatment. The Hague, Mouton, 1970. Levine HS: Short-term recognition memory in relation to severity of head injury. Cortex 1976; 12: 175–182.Google Scholar
  26. Levine HS, Peters BH: Neuropsychological testing following head injuries: Prosopagnosia without visual field defect. Dis New Syst 1976; 68: 21–22.Google Scholar
  27. Levine HS, Grossman RG, Rose JE et al: Long-term neuropsychological outcome of closed head injury. J Neurosurg 1979; 50: 412–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lezak MD: Recovery of memory and learning functions following traumatic brain change. Cortex 1979; 15: 63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Mandleberg IA, Brooks DN: Cognitive recovery after severe head injury. I. Serial testing on the WAIS. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1975; 38: 1121–1126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. McKinlay WW, Brooks DN, Bond M, et al: Short-term outcome of severe blunt head injury as reported by relatives of the injured persons. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1981; 44: 527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Parker SA, Serrats AF: Memory recovery after traumatic coma. Acta Neurochir 1976; 34: 71–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Partington MW: The importance of accident proneness in the etiology of head injuries in children.Arch Dis Child 1960; 35: 215.Google Scholar
  33. Russel WR: Amnesia following head injury. Lancet 1935; 2: 762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Russel WR: Traumatic Amnesia. London, Oxford University Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  35. Russel WR, Mathan P: Traumatic amnesia. Brain 1946; 69: 280–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Smith E: Influence of site of impact. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1974; 37: 719–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Symonds CP: Concussion and its sequelae. Lancet 1962; 1: 1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Teasdale G, Jannett B: Assessment of coma and impaired consciousness: A practical scale. Lancet 1974; 2: 81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tennent T: Mental disorder following head injury. Proc R Soc Med 1937; 30: 1092–1093.Google Scholar
  40. Tooth G: On the use of mental tests for the measurement of disability after head injury. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1947; 10:1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Williams M: Memory disorders associated with electroconvulsive therapy, in Whitty C, Zangwill O (eds): Amnesia. London, Buttersworths, 1966, pp 134–149.Google Scholar
  42. Windle WF, Groat R, Fox C: Experimental structural alterations in the brain during and after concussion. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1944; 79: 561.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aman U. Khan
    • 1
  1. 1.Southern Illinois University School of MedicineSpringfieldUSA

Personalised recommendations