Effects of Specimen Preparation on the Apparent Ultrastructure of Microorganisms

  • William J. Todd


As microbiologists, we have available to us a variety of both established and newly developed electron microscopy (EM) techniques useful for detailed ultra-structural analysis of microorganisms. Although applications of the new methods will undoubtedly lead to a better understanding of microbial ultrastructure and function, the traditional approach of investigations using fixed, embedded, and sectioned specimens will remain as a central EM method for the foreseeable future. Among the many useful protocols for traditional processing of specimens, the procedures recommended by Ito and Rikihisa (1981) are consistently effective for preserving the ultrastructure of both microorganisms and host cells. These procedures have evolved through the input of many investigators and are summarized here.


Tannic Acid Osmium Tetroxide Specimen Preparation Neisseria Gonorrhoeae Microbial Structure 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • William J. Todd
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Veterinary Science Louisiana Agricultural Experiment StationLouisiana State University Agricultural CenterBaton RouteUSA
  2. 2.Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Parasitology School of Veterinary MedicineLouisiana State UniversityBaton RouteUSA

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