Advertisement

Abstract

About 10 years ago, a new generation of computer-assisted X-ray spectrometers became available and virtually revolutionized elemental microanalysis with scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Prior to that time, considerable training and experience were required before usable results could be obtained. With the new minicomputer-based systems, biologists can obtain usable results with much less effort, and the technique is thereby more accessible to the average researcher and requires less time investment.

Keywords

Microprobe Analysis Usable Result Magnetic Medium Lens Program Secondary Electron Imaging Mode 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldrich, H. C., Barstow, W. E., Lingle, W. L., 1984, Elemental analysis of particles in fungal zoospores, Arch. Microbiol. 139: 102–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balkwill, D. L., Maratea, D., Blakemore, R. P., 1980, Ultrastructure of a magnetotacticGoogle Scholar
  3. Spirillum, J. Bacteriol. 141:1399–1408.Google Scholar
  4. Baxter, M., Jensen, T. E., 1980, A study of methods for in situ X-ray energy dispersive analysis of polyphosphate bodies in Plectonema boryanum, Arch. Microbiol. 126: 213–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Chastellier, C., Ryter, A., 1981, Calcium dependent deposits at the plasma membrane of Dictyostelium discoideum and their possible relation with contractile proteins, Biol. Cell. 40: 109–118.Google Scholar
  6. Dubochet, J., McDowall, A. W., 1984, Frozen hydrated sections, in: The Science of Biological Specimen Preparation for Microscopy and Microanalysis ( J.-P. Revel, T. Barnard, and G. H. Haggis, eds.), pp. 147–152, SEM, Inc., Chicago.Google Scholar
  7. Dubochet, J., McDowall, A. W., Menge, B., Schmid, E. N., Lickfeld, K. G., 1983, Electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated bacteria, J. Bacteriol. 155: 381–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Goldstein, J. I., Newbury, D. E., Echlin, P., Joy, D. C., Fiori, C., Lifshin, E., 1981, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis, Plenum Press, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hagler, H. K., Buja, L. M., 1984, New techniques for the preparation of thin freeze dried cryosections for X-ray microanalysis, in: The Science of Biological Specimen Preparation for Microscopy and Microanalysis (J.-P. Revel, T. Barnard, and G. H. Haggis,), pp. 161- 166, SEM, Inc., Chicago.Google Scholar
  10. Hagler, H. K., Burton, K., Buja, L. M., 1981, Electron probe X-ray microanalysis of normal and injured myocardium: Methods and results, in: Microprobe Analysis of Biological Systems ( T. E. Hutchinson and A. P. Somlyo, eds.), pp. 127–155, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Holt, S. C., Beveridge, T. J., 1982, Electron microscopy: Its development and application to microbiology, Can. J. Microbiol. 28: 1–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hutchinson, T. E., Somlyo, A. P. (eds.), 1981, Microprobe Analysis of Biological Systems, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Jensen, T. E., Sicko-Goad, L., Ayala, R. P., 1977, Phosphate metabolism in blue-green algae. III. The effect of fixation and post-staining on the morphology of polyphosphate bodies in Plectonema boryanum, Cytologia 42: 357–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Jensen, T. E., Rachlin, J. W., Jani, V., Warkentine, B., 1982, An X-ray energy-dispersive study of cellular compartmentalization of lead and zinc in Chlorella saccharophila (Chlo- rophyta), Navicula incerta and Nitschia closterium (Bacillariophyta), Environ. Exp. Bot. 22: 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson, D. E., 1981, Limitations to the sensitivity of energy-loss spectrometry, in: Microprobe Analysis of Biological Systms ( T. E. Hutchinson and A. P. Somlyo, eds.), pp. 351–353, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Monson, K. L., Hutchinson, T. E., 1981, X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried muscle: Techniques and problems, in: Microprobe Analysis of Biological Systems ( T. E. Hutchinson and A. P. Somlyo, eds.), pp. 157–176, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  17. Ornberg, R., and Reese, T. S., 1981, Quick freezing and freeze substitution for X-ray microanalysis of calcium, in: Microprobe Analysis of Biological Systems ( T. E. Hutchinson and A. P. Somlyo, eds.), pp. 213–228, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Parsons, D., Bellotto, D. J., Schulz, W. W., Buja, M., Hagler, H. K. 1984, Towards routine cryoultramicrotomy, EM SA Bull. 14: 49 — 60.Google Scholar
  19. Saubermann, A., 1981, Cryosectioning of biological tissue for X-ray microanalysis of diffusible elements, in: Microprobe Analysis of Biological Systems ( T. E. Hutchinson and A. P. Somlyo, eds.), pp. 377 - 396, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Scherer, P., Bochem, H. P., 1983, Ultrastructural investigation of Methanosarcinae and related species grown on methanol for occurrence of polyphosphate-like bodies, Can. J. Microbiol. 29: 1190-1199.Google Scholar
  21. Shuman, H., Somlyo, A. V., Somlyo, A. P., 1981, Electron energy-loss analysis in biology: Application to muscle and a parallel collection system, in: Microprobe Analysis of Biological Systems ( T. E. Hutchinson and A. P. Somlyo, eds.), pp. 273–288, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  22. Sicko-Goad, L. M., Crang, R. E., Jensen, T. E., 1975, Phosphate metabolism in blue-green algae. IV. In situ analysis of polyphosphate bodies by X-ray energy dispersive analysis, Cytobiologie 11: 430-437.Google Scholar
  23. Steinbrecht, R. A., Zierold, K., 1984, A cryoembedding method for cutting ultrathin cryosections from small frozen specimens, J. Microsc. (Oxford) 136: 69–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Stewart, M., Somlyo, A. P., Somlyo, A. V., Shuman, S., Lindsay, J. A., Murrell, W. G., 1980, Distribution of calcium and other elements in cryosectioned Bacillus cereus T spores, determined by high-resolution scanning electron probe X-ray microanalysis, J. Bacteriol. 143: 481–491.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. C. Aldrich
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Cell ScienceUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations