Advertisement

Legal and Regulatory Aspects of Genetically Engineered Animals

  • Daniel D. Jones
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series

Abstract

The commercialization of genetically engineered animals, particularly food animals, may pose a number of legal and regulatory questions that have not been encountered before. In addressing these questions, it is helpful to distinguish between the process and the products of animal genetic engi neering. From a legal standpoint, the process of animal genetic engineering will probably be regulated in much the same manner as other currently used veterinary procedures and it is discussed briefly below.

Keywords

Food Animal Meat Inspection Regulatory Question Animal Drug Inspection Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 26th ed. (1981) W.B. Saun ders Co., Philadelphia, p. 838.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dorland’s Illustrated Medical Dictionary, 26th ed. (1981) W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, p. 254.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ensminger, M.E. (1983) Animal Science, 8th ed., Interstate Printers and Publishers, Danville, Illinois, p. 213.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fedoroff, N., quoted in L. Tangley (1985) New biology enters a new era. BioScience 35:270–275.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fehilly, C.B., S.M. Willadsen, and E.M. Tucker (1984) Interspecific chimaerism between sheep and goat. Nature 307:634–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ferguson, A. (1980) Higher-category systematics. In Biochemical Sys tematics and Evolution, John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 131–150.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Food and Drug Administration (1982) Section 510.3 Definitions and interpretations. Code of Federal Regulations, Food and Drugs 21 CFR 500.25: 74–75.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Food and Drug Administration (1982) Memorandum of understanding with the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Federal Register 47:26458–26459.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jeffrey, C. (1977) Biological Nomenclature, 2nd ed., Crane, Russak and Co., New York, p. 44.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jones, D.D. (1983) Genetic engineering in domestic food animals: Legal and regulatory considerations. Food Drug Cosm. Law J. 38:273–287.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jones, D.D. (1985) Commercialization of gene transfer in food organisms: A science-based regulatory model. Food Drug Cosm. Law J. (in press).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    King, M.C., and A.C. Wilson (1975) Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees. Science 188:107–116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Korwek, E.L. (1982) FDA regulation of biotechnology as a new method of manufacture. Food Drug Cosm. Law J. 37:289–309.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lacy, E., S. Roberts, E.P. Evans, M.D. Burtenshaw, and F.D. Costantini (1983) A foreign ß-globin gene in transgenic mice: Integration at abnormal chromosomal positions and expression in inappropriate tissues. Cell 34:343–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Meinecke-Tillman, S., and B. Meinecke (1984) Experimental chimaeras-Removal of reproductive barrier between sheep and goat. Nature 307: 637–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sneath, P.H.A., and R.R. Sokal (1973) Numerical Taxonomy, W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    U.S. Congress (1982) Viruses, serums, toxins, antitoxins, and analogous products. U.S. Code 1982 Ed. 8:720–722.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    U.S. Congress (1982) Distribution and marketing of agricultural products. U.S. Code 1982 Ed. 2:608–615.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    U.S. Congress (1982) Meat inspection. U.S. Code 1982 Ed. 8:849–873.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    U.S. Congress (1982) Section 360b. New animal drugs. U.S. Code 1982 Ed. 8:786–792.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    U.S. Congress (1982) Poultry and poultry products inspection. U.S. Code 1982 Ed. 8:831–849.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    U.S. Congress (1982) Insecticides and environmental pesticide control. U.S. Code 1982 Ed. 2:103–140.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (1973) 3.1 Game animals. In Meat and Poultry Inspection Manual, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., p. 2.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (1973) 3.2 Catalo or cattalo. In Meat and Poultry Inspection Manual, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wash ington, D.C., p. 2.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (1973) 3.3 Beefalo. In Meat and Poultry Inspection Manual, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., p. 2.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (1973) 17.13(n) Beefalo. In Meat and Poultry Inspection Manual, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C., p. 118.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (1982) Section 101.2 Administrative terminology. Code of Federal Regulations, Animals and Animal Products9 CFR 1.1:332–333.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (1984) Food Safety and Inspection Service, Meat and Poultry Inspection, Department of Agriculture. Code of Federal Regulations, Animals and Animal Products 9 CFR 201.1:105–446.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (1984) Section 309.17 Livestock used for research. Code of Federal Regulations, Animals and Animal Prod ucts 9 CFR 201.1:137.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (1984) Subchapter A--Mandatory meat inspection. Code of Federal Regulations, Animals and Animal Products9 CFR 201.1:107–291.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (1984) Subchapter C-Mandatory poultry products inspection. Code of Federal Regulations, Animals and Animal Products 9 CFR 201.1:343–444.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (1984) Section 381.75 Poultry used for research. Code of Federal Regulations, Animals and Animal Products9 CFR 201.1:381.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (1984) Subchapter B-Voluntary inspection and certification. Code of Federal Regulations, Animals and Ani mal Products 9 CFR 201.1:292–342.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (1985) Voluntary inspection of buffalo. Federal Register 50:10778–10784.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel D. Jones
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Food Safety and Inspection ServiceUnited States Department of AgricultureS.W.USA
  2. 2.Standards and Labeling Division, Meat and Poultry Inspection Technical Services, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)USA

Personalised recommendations