Identification of Sex in Mammalian Embryos

  • G. B. Anderson
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series


One of the uncertainties in reproduction of farm animals, regardless of whether one considers natural reproduction or reproduction assisted by artificial insemination or embryo transfer, is sex of the resulting off spring. This uncertainty can be of significant consequence when the economic value of one sex is considerably greater than that of the other. Little progress has been made despite long-term interest in controlling the sex ratio, or at least in exerting a measure of control. Recorded in folklore, the popular press, and to some extent in the scientific literature are time-honored but unsubstantiated procedures for affecting the sex ratio in animals and humans (see Ref. 2 and 17 for historical reviews). Perhaps the ideal method of controlling the sex ratio is by separation of X-bearing and Y-bearing spermatozoa. Although some progress has been reported in conjunction with human artificial insemination, these procedures have not been successfully extended to agriculturally important animals. Despite the existence of procedures that are commercially available for sexing of semen, researchers have generally concluded from results of controlled studies that no such procedures can be used to consistently control the sex ratio (1).


Embryo Transfer Zona Pellucida Bovine Embryo Morula Stage Male Embryo 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. B. Anderson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Animal ScienceUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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