Genetic Analysis in Mammals: Past, Present, and Future

  • Stephen J. O’Brien
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series


In the mid-1960s, when I first became interested in animal genetics as an undergraduate student, the revolution in biological and genetic technology which is realized today was a mere twinkle in the eye of practicing geneticists. The human gene map contained only a few loci, mostly on the X-chromosome, and Drosophila was the undisputed leader in genetic analysis of metazoans. The mouse genome was the prototype of mammalian gene studies because of the terrific advantages offered by the development of inbred mice. Mendel’s laws were (and still are) the cornerstone of eukaryote genetics and intuitive genetic analysis was a talent practiced by such pioneers as Bridges, Morgan, McClintock, Dobzhansky, and Green. Since that period, the field of animal genetics has grown appreciably due in no small way to the terrific explosion of molecular biology, parasexual genetic analysis, and DNA methodology. Today, we have in our scientific repertoire the ability to examine gene action virtually by direct observation and to put to the test the scores of intriguing hypotheses that have emerged during the deductive period of genetics.


Giant Panda Acrocentric Chromosome Mouse Lemur Indian Muntjac Comparative Gene Mapping 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Couturier, J., B. Dutrillaux, C. Turleau, and J. de Grouchy (1982) Comparaisons chromosomiques chez quartre especes on sous-especes de gibbons. Ann. Genet. 25:5–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Downward, J., Y. Yarden, E. Mayes, G. Scrace, N. Totty, P. Stockwell, A. Ullrich, J. Schlessinger, and M.D. Waterfield (1984) Close similar ity of epidermal growth factor receptor and v-erb-B oncogene protein sequences. Nature 307:521–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dutrillaux, B. (1979) Chromosomal evolution in primates: Tentative phylogeny from Microcebus murinus (Prosimian) to man. Hum. Genet.48:251–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dutrillaux, B., and J. Couturier (1981) The ancestral karyotype of platyrrhine monkeys. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 30:232–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gould, S.J. (1980) Is a new and general theory of evolution emerging? Paleobiology 6:119–130.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gould, S.J., and N. Eldridge (1977) Punctuated equilibria: The tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3:115–151.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lalley, P., and V. McKusick (1985) Report of International Committee on comparative gene mapping. Cytogenet. Cell Genet, (in press).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liming, S., Y. Yingying, and D. Xingsheng (1980) Comparative cytogenetic studies on the red muntjac, Chinese muntjac and their Fl hybrids. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 26:22–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McKusick, V.A. (1984) The human gene map. In Genetic Maps, Vol. 3, S.J. O’Brien, ed. Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York, pp. 417–441.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nadeau, J.H., and B.A. Taylor (1984) Lengths of chromosomal segments conserved since the divergence of man and mouse. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 81:814–818.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nash, W.G., and S.J. O’Brien (1982) Conserved regions of homologous G-banded chromosomes between orders in mammalian evolution: Carnivores and primates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 79:6631–6635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    O’Brien, S.J., ed. (1984) Genetic Maps, Vol. 3, Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York, 584 pp.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    O’Brien, S.J., and W.G. Nash (1982) Genetic mapping in mammals: Chromosome map of domestic cat. Science 216:257–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    O’Brien, S.J., W.G. Nash, D.E. Wildt, M.E. Bush, and R.E. Benveniste (1985) A molecular solution to the riddle of the giant panda’s phylogeny. Nature 317:140–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    O’Brien, S.J., H.N. Seuanez, and J.E. Womack (1985) On the evolution of genome organization in mammals. In Evolutionary Biology, R.J. Maclntyre, ed. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 518–589.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Roderick, T., and M. Davisson (1984) The linkage map of the mouse (Mus musculus). In Genetic Maps, Vol. 3, S.J. O’Brien, ed. Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York, pp. 343–355.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ryder, O.A., N.C. Epel, and K. Benirschke (1978) Chromosome banding studies of the Equidae. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 20:332–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Seuanez, H.N. (1984) Evolutionary aspects of human chromosomes. Sub-cell. Biochem. 10:455–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shimizu, N., M.A. Behzadian, and Y. Shimuzu (1980) Genetics of cell surface receptors for bioactive polypeptides: Binding of epidermal growth factor is associated with the presence of human chromosome 7 in human-mouse cell hybrids. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., USA 77:3600–3604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shows, T.B., A.Y. Sakaguchi, and S.L. Naylor (1982) Mapping the human genome, cloned genes, DNA polymorphisms and inherited disease. Adv. Hum. Genet. 12:341–452.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shows, T.B., P.J. McAlpine, and R.L. Miller (1984) The 1983 catalogue of mapped human genetic markers and report of the Nomenclature Committee. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 37:340–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Spurr, N.K., E. Solomon, M. Jansson, D. Sheer, P.N. Goodfellow, W.F. Bodmer, and B. Vennstrom (1984) Chromosomal localization of the human homologues to the oncogenes erbA and B. EMBO J. 3:159–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Womack, J.E. (1982) Linkage of mammalian isozyme loci: A comparative approach. In Isozymes: Current Topics in Biological and Medical Re search, Vol. 6, M.C. Rattazzi, J.G. Scandalios, and G.S. Whitt, eds. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 207–246.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wurster, D.H., and K. Benirschke (1970) Indian muntjac, Muntiacus muntjak: A deer with a low diploid chromosome number. Science 168: 1364–1366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wurster-Hill, D.H., and W.R. Centerwall (1982) The interrelationships of chromosome banding patterns in canids, mustelids, hyena and felids. Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 34:178–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wurster-Hill, D.H., and C.W. Gray (1973) Giemsa banding patterns in the chromosomes of twelve species of cats (Felidae). Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 12:388–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yunis, J.J., and O. Prakash (1982) The origin of man: A chromosomal pictorial legacy. Science 215:1525–1530.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yunis, J.J., J.R. Sawyer, and K. Dunham (1980) The striking resemblance of high-resolution G-banded chromosomes of man and chimpanzee. Science 208:1145–1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen J. O’Brien
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Viral CarcinogenesisNational Cancer InstituteFrederickUSA

Personalised recommendations