Advertisement

Animal Models of Androgen Insensitivity

  • Leslie P. Bullock
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 196)

Abstract

In the human, androgen resistance has been associated with several different defects which result in complete to partial insensitivity to male hormones. These disorders include 5α-reductase deficiency, complete and incomplete forms of testicular feminization (Tfm), Reifenstein’s Syndrome one form of male infertility, and a possible postreceptor defect.1 Well-characterized animal models of androgen resistance are available only for testicular feminization.

Keywords

Androgen Receptor Submaxillary Gland Testosterone Enanthate Preputial Gland Male Pseudohermaphrodite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. E. Griffin and J. D. Wilson, The syndromes of androgen resistance, N. Engl. J. Med. 302: 198 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. De Quervain, Ein fall von pseudohermaphroditismus masculinus. Schweiz med Wochenschr 53: 563 (1923).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    G. Pettersson and G. Bonnier, Inherited sex mosaic in man. Hereditas 23: 49 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. M. Morris, The syndrome of testicular feminization in male pseudohermaphrodites. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 65: 1192 (1953).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Wilkins, Abnormal sex differentiation; hermaphroditism and gonadal dysgenesis. In: The Diagnosis and Treatment of Endocrine Disorders in Children and Adolescence. Springfield, Ill, p., 258 (1957).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. Kovacs, J. E. Griffin, and J. D. Wilson Androgen Resistance in Man. In: Chrousos G.P., Loriaux, D.L. and Lip’§ett, M.B. (Eds) Mechanisms and Clinical Implications of Steroid Hormone Resistance Plenum Publishing Corp; New York (1985).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Janne and C. W. Bardin, Androgen and antiandrogen receptor binding. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 46: 107 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. J. Stanley, L. G. Gumbreck, and J. E. Allison, Male pseudohermaphroditism in the laboratory Norway war. Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 29: 43 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. F. Lyon and S. G. Hawkes, X-linked gene for testicular feminization in the mouse. Nature 227: 1217 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    N. Nes, Testikulaer feminisering hos Storfe. Nord. Vet. Med. 18: 19 (1966).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. G. Schultz, Male pseudohermaphroditism diagnosed with aid of sex chromatin technique. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 140: 241 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Lovell, Mouse News Letter No. 60: 42 (1979).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    C. W. Bardin, L. P. Bullock, R. J. Sherins, I. Mowszowicz, and W. R. Blackburn, Androgen metabolism and mechanism of action in male pseudohermaphroditism: a study of testicular feminization. Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 29: 65 (1973).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. R. Blecher, Microscopic epididymides in testicular feminization. Nature 275: 748 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. J. Sherins, L. Bullock, V. L. Gay, T. Vanha-Perttula, and C. W. Bardin, Plasma LH and FSH levels in the androgen insensitive pseudohermaphroditic rat: responses to steroid administration. Endocrinol. 88: 763 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. S. Goldman, Recent studies on the intersexual programming of the genetic rat male pseudohermaphrodite. Int Symp Intersexuality Animal Kingdom Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, p. 422 (1975).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    J. L. Goldstein and J. D. Wilson, Studies on the pathogenesis of the pseudohermaphroditism in the mouse with testicular feminization. J. Clin. Invest. 51: 1647 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W. R. Blackburn, K. W. Chung, L. Bullock and C. W. Bardin, Testicular feminization in the mouse: studies of Leydig cell structure and function. Biol. Reprod. 9: 9 (1973).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    L. P. Bullock and C. W. Bardin, Androgen-insensitive animals as a tool for understanding the mode of androgen action. In: Martini L and Motta M (eds) Androgens and Antiandrogens. Raven Press, New York, p. 91 (1977).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    L. P. Bullock, Androgen and progestin stimulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity in the mouse kidney. Endocrinol. 112: 1903 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    L. Bullock and C. W. Bardin, Decreased dihydrotestosterone retention by preputial gland nuclei from the androgen insensitive pseudohermaphrodite rat. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 31: 113 (1970).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    A. A. Smith, W. S. McLean, S. N. Nayfeh, and F. S. French, Androgen receptor in rat testis. In: French FS, Hansson V, Ritzen EM, Nayfeh SN (eds) Hormonal Regulation of Spermatogenesis. Plenum Press, New York, p 257 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. J. Sheridan, Localization of androgen-and estrogen-concentrating neurons in the diencephalon and telencephalon of the mouse. Endocrinol. 103: 1328 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Naess, E. Haug, A. Attramadal, A. Aakvaag, V. Hansson, and F. French, Androgen receptors in the anterior pituitary and central nervous system of the androgen “insensitive” Tfm rat: correlation between receptor binding and effects of androgens on gonadotropin secretion. Endocrinol. 99: 1295 (1976).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    T. 0. Fox, K. L. Olsen, C. C. Vito, and S. J. Wieland, Putative steroid receptors: genetics and development. In: Schmitt FO, Bird SJ, Bloom FE (eds) Molecular Genetic Neuroscience. Raven Press, New York, p. 289 (1982).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. 0. Fox and S. J. Wieland, Isoelectric focusing of androgen receptors from wild-type and Tfm mouse kidneys. Endocrinol. 109: 790 (1981).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    T. O. Fox, D. Blank, and J. A. Politch, Residual androgen binding in testicular feminization (Tfm). J. Steroid Biochem. 19: 577 (1983).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    I. Mowszowicz, D. E. Bieber, K. W. Chung, L. P. Bullock and C. W. Bardin, Synandrogenic and antiandrogenic effect of progestins: comparisons with nonprogestational antiandrogens. Endocrinol. 95: 1589 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    L. P. Bullock, P. L. Barthe, I. Mowszowicz, D. N. Orth, and C. W. Bardin, The effect of progestins on submaxillary gland epidermal growth factor: demonstration of androgenic, synandrogenic and antiandrogenic actions. Endocrinol. 97: 189 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. Gupta, L. P. Bullock, and C. W. Bardin, Further studies on the androgenic, anti-androgenic, and synandrogenic actions of progestins. Endocrinol. 102: 736 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    L. P. Bullock, C. W. Bardin, and M. R. Sherman, Androgenic, antiandrogenic, and synandrogenic actions of progestins: role of steric and allosteric interactions with androgen receptors. Endocrinol. 103: 1768 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    K. Bakshi, D. Brusick, L. P. Bullock, and C. W. Bardin, Regulation of dimethylnitrosamine metabolism by androgenic hormones. Environ. Mutagen. 2: 51 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. M. Fysh, L. S. Andrews, and D. W. Nebert, Androgen receptor-mediated genetic differences in 2-acetylaminofluorene and dimethylnitrosamine mutagenesis in vitro. Anticancer Res. 3: 305 (1983).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    E. C. Besa and L. P. Bullock, The role of the androgen receptor in erythropoiesis. Endocrinol. 109: 1983 (1981).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. W. McEwen, Sexual differentiation of the brain: Gonadal hormone action and current concepts of neuronal differentiation. In: Brown I (ed) Molecular Approaches to Neurobiology. Academic Press, New York, p 195 (1982).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    P. Shrenker and S. C. Maxson, The genetics of hormonal influences on male sexual behavior of mice and rats. Neurosci. Biobehay. Reviews 7: 349 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    D. Bennett, E. A. Boyse, M. F. Lyon, B. J. Mathieson, M. Scheid and K. Yanagisawa, Expression of H-Y (male) antigen in phenotypically female Tfm/Y mice. Nature 257: 236 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    U. Drews, Direct and mediated effects of testosterone: the development of intersexes in sex reversed mosaic mice, heterozygous for testicular feminization. Anat. Embryol. 146: 325 (1975).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    K-U Thiedemann and U. Drews, Nuclei in testicular feminization (Tfm) are not activated by intact testosterone receptor complexes: A morphometric study in striated urethral muscle of mosaic mice. Cell Tissue Res. 212: 127 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    K-U Thiedemann, G. Schleicher, and U. Drews, Intact testosterone receptor complex does not induce RNA synthesis of Tfmnuclei in multinucleated urethral muscle fibres of mosaic mice. Histochemistry 70: 123 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    G. R. Cunha, L. W. K. Chung, J. M. Shannon, and B. A. Reese, Stromal-epithelial interactions in sex differentiation. Biol. of Repro. 22: 19 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    G. R. Cunha and L. W. K. Chung, Stromal-epithelial interactions-I. Induction of prostatic phenotype in urothelium of testicular feminized (Tfm/y) mice. J. Steroid Biochem. 14: 1317 (1981).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    I. Lasnitzki and T. Mizuno, Prostatic induction: interaction of epithelium and mesenchyme from normal wild-type mice and androgen-insensitive mice with testicular feminization. J. Endocr. 85: 423 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    K. Kratochwil and P. Schwartz, Tissue interaction in androgen response of embryonic mammary rudiment of mouse: identification of target tissue for testosterone. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73: 4041 (1976).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    U. Drews and U. Drews, Regression of mouse mammary gland anlagen in recombinants of Tfm and wild-type tissues: testosterone acts via the mesenchyme. Cell 10: 401 (1977).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    U. Drews and V. Alonso-Lozano, X-interactivation pattern in the epididymis of sex-reversed mice heterozygous for testicular feminization. J. Embryol. Exp. Morph. 32: 217 (1974).PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leslie P. Bullock
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of MedicineTufts University School of Veterinary MedicineJamaica PlainUSA

Personalised recommendations