Solar Energy Conversion through Photoelectrochemistry

  • A. J. Bard


Of the many problems facing mankind, those concerning the availability and distribution of energy will ultimately be the most important. As fossil fuels become depleted, we will turn more and more to alternative sources and eventually depend upon energy technologies based on solar energy and perhaps fusion. Moreover, an important standard of living in undeveloped nations will require an abundant, inexpensive, and decentralized energy source, solar energy seems ideally suited for this application. It is the thesis of this paper that electrochemical methods will be useful in the conversion of solar energy to electricity or useful chemical products. Indeed, photoelectrochemical cells utilizing semiconductor materials have demonstrated the highest efficiencies in systems for the sustained conversion of solar energy to useful chemicals.


Solar Energy Solar Energy Conversion Photoelectrochemical Cell Semiconductor Electrode Solar Photovoltaic Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    C. Sagan, “The Dragons of Eden,” Random House, 1977, used a similar calendar with the origin of the universe (15 billion years ago) set on Jan. 1.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. K. Hubbert, “Resources and Man,” Freeman, San Francisco, pp.157–242 (1969); “US Energy Resources,” a Review as of 1972, Part I, Ser.No.93–40, (92–75), US Government Printing Office (1974).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. R. Berg, J. C. Calhoun, and R. L. Whiting, Science, 184: 331 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. A. Bartlett, Physics Today, p. 9 (1976).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. W. Cahn, Nature, 266: 106 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    See,for example, S. M. Sze, “Physics of Semiconductor Devices,” Wiley, New York (1981).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. J. Bard, J.Phys.Chem., 86: 172 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. A. J. Bard, J.Photochem., 10: 50 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    A. J. Bard, Science, 207: 139 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    S. R. Nozik, Annu.Rev.Phys.Chem., 29: 189 (1979).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    R. Memming, in: “Electroanalytical Chemistry,” A. J. Bard, ed., Marcel Dekker, New York (1977).Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    M. Wrighton, Acc.Chem.Res., 12: 303 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 12.
    H. Gerischer, in: “Physical Chemistry: An Advanced Treatise,” H. Eyring, D. Henderson, and W. Jost, eds., Academic Press, New York (1970).Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    S. R. Morrison, “Electrochemistry at Semiconductor and Oxidized Metal Electrodes,” Plenum, New York (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 14.
    A. Fujishima and K. Honda, Bull.Chem.Soc.Japan, 44: 1148 ( 1971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. A. Fujishima and K. Honda, Nature, 238: 37 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 15.
    See, for example, A. Heller, Science, 223: 1141 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 16.
    S. N. Frank and A. J. Bard, J.Phys.Chem., 81: 1484 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 17.
    D. S. Miller, A. J. Bard, G. McLendon, and J. Ferguson, J.Am.Chem.Soc., 103: 5336 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. M. Spiro, J.Chem.Soc., Faraday Translation, 1, 75: 1507 (1979).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 18.
    A. J. Bard, F. -R. F. Fan, G. A. Hope, and R. G. Keil, ACS Symp.Ser., No. 211, 93 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 19.
    H. D. Abruna and A. J. Bard, J.Am.Chem.Soc., 103: 6898 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. D. C. Bookbinder, J. A. Bruce, R. N. Dominey, N. S. Lewis, and M. S. Wrighton, Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci., 77: 6280 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 20.
    E. L. Johnson, “TI Solar Energy System Development,” IEEE Proc.IEOM, p.2, Dec. 1981; “Report to Dept. of Energy,” DOE/TI-ER10000, June 19, 1980 J. S. Kilbey, J. W. Lathrop, and W. A. Porter, US Patents 4,021,323, 3 May 1977; 4,100,051, 11 July 1978; 4, 136, 436, 30 Jan. 1979.Google Scholar
  25. 21.
    J. R. White, F. -R. F. Fan, and A. J. Bard, submitted.Google Scholar
  26. 22.
    M. Krishnan, J. R. White, M. A. Fox, and A. J. Bard, J.Am.Chem.Soc., 105: 7002 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 23.
    A. W. Mau, N. Kakuta, A. J. Bard, A. Campion, M. A. Fox, J. M. White, and S. E. Weber, submitted.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. J. Bard
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryThe University of TexasAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations