Failure to Thrive: An Expanded Conceptual Model

  • Elizabeth F. Gordon
  • Delia M. Vazquez


Growth failure or failure to thrive (FTT) in infancy has been a perplexing problem for more than a century. The first edition of the textbook, The Diseases of Infancy and Childhood, by L.E. Holt (1899) addressed the problem under the section “Malnutrition in Infants.” During the first two decades of the twentieth century, FTT was synonymous with infantile dystrophy, single dystrophy and marasmus (Holt & Howland, 1913).


Growth Failure Adverse Environment Maternal Deprivation Organic Disorder Institutionalize Child 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth F. Gordon
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Delia M. Vazquez
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics/Human DevelopmentMichigan State UniversityUSA
  2. 2.Hurley Medical CenterUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsUniversity of IowaUSA

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