The “bread-and-butter” radiographic procedure for visualizing urinary tract pathology has been the abdominal film and intravenous urogram. These studies have been supplemented by the cystogram, retrograde pyelogram, and ure-throgram performed in either a retrograde or antegrade fashion. More invasive procedures such as angiography, venography, and retroperitoneal pneumography have also been involved in the radiologic workup of urinary tract pathology. The first nonradiographic procedures utilized in genitourinary tract imaging were the radionuclide renal scans. Within the past 10 years, ultrasound and computerized tomography (CT) have also complemented, and in some circumstances replaced, the aforementioned contrast radiographie studies.
KeywordsRenal Mass Ureteral Obstruction Effective Renal Plasma Flow Chronic Pyelonephritis Intravenous Urogram
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