Forest Insects pp 105-124 | Cite as

Monitoring and Forecasting Insect Outbreaks

  • Alan A. Berryman
Part of the Population Ecology: Theory and Application book series (POPE)


Most forestry organizations periodically monitor their lands in order to detect incipient pest outbreaks and to determine damage levels or changes in the boundaries of ongoing infestations. These surveys may be designed to monitor large areas of forest (extensive surveys) or to examine particular infestations in considerable detail (intensive surveys). In addition to providing information on current damage levels, survey data may be used to forecast damage trends.


Bark Beetle Insect Population Aerial Survey Forest Insect Insect Outbreak 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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References and Selected Readings

  1. Aldrich, R. C., and Drooz, A. T., 1965, Estimating fraser fir mortality and balsam woolly aphid infestation trend using aerial color photography, For. Sci. 13:300–313. (intensive aerial survey)Google Scholar
  2. Avery, T. E., 1966, Forester’s guide to aerial photo interpretation, U.S. Forest Service, Agricultural Handbook No. 308, 40 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, D. D., and Bousfield, W. E., 1979, A pilot survey to measure annual mortality caused by the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine on the Beaverhead and Gallatin National Forests, 1978, U.S. Forest Service, Northern Region State and Private Forestry Report No. 79–20, 13 pp. (intensive aerial survey)Google Scholar
  4. Berryman, A. A., 1968, Development of sampling techniques and life tables for the fir engraver, Scolytus ventralis (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), Can. Entomol. 100:1138–1147. (optimal sampling procedures)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berryman, A. A., 1982, Mountain pine beetle outbreaks in Rocky Mountain lodgepole pine forests. J. For. 80:410–413.Google Scholar
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  7. Bousfield, W. E., 1980, R-1 forest insect and disease damage survey system, U.S. Forest Service Service, Northern Region State and Private Forestry, Report No. 79–2, Missoula, 23 pp. (intensive ground survey)Google Scholar
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  10. Daterman, G. E., Livingston, R. L., Wenz, J. M., and Sower, L. L., 1979, How to use pheromone traps to determine outbreak potentials, U.S. Forest Service, Agricultural Handbook No. 546, 11 pp. (for Douglas-fir tussock moth)Google Scholar
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  24. Southwood, T. R. E., 1966, Ecological Methods with Particular Reference to the Study of Insect Populations, 2nd ed., 1978. Chapman and Hall, London, 524 pp. (excellent review of sampling methods, life tables, key factors analysis, etc.)Google Scholar
  25. Stark, R. W., 1958, Life tables for the lodgepole needle miner Recurvaria starki Free (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), Proc. 10th Int. Congr. Entomol. 4:151–162.Google Scholar
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  27. Waters, W. E., 1955, Sequential sampling in forest insect surveys, For. Sci. 1:68–79 (sequential sampling methods)Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan A. Berryman
    • 1
  1. 1.Washington State UniversityPullmanUSA

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