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Specific Reading Disability

  • Steven G. Vandenberg
  • Sandra Manes Singer
  • David L. Pauls

Abstract

A child usually begins formal lessons in reading between the ages of 5 and 7 years. Initially, it is difficult to learn the arbitrary associations of symbol and sound and even more difficult to remember that combinations of alphabetic characters are capable of representing an unlimited number of words. Although most children have mastered the complex mechanics of reading after 2 or 3 years of schooling, and some even earlier, as many as 25% have not (Bryant & McLoughlin, 1972). For some of this population, deficits in the acquisition of reading skills can be attributed to mental retardation, to congenital or traumatic brain damage, to emotional disturbance, to peripheral sensory dysfunction, or to cultural or educational deprivation.

Keywords

Twin Pair Reading Disability Fraternal Twin Secondary Case Specific Reading Disability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven G. Vandenberg
    • 1
  • Sandra Manes Singer
    • 2
  • David L. Pauls
    • 3
  1. 1.University of ColoradoBoulderUSA
  2. 2.University of Southern IndianaEvansvilleUSA
  3. 3.Yale UniversityNew HavenUSA

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