Temporal Integration Processing Techniques

  • S. J. Riederer
  • S. J. Riederer


The last several years have seen the introduction and rapid development of digital subtraction angiography (DSA), a technique which has been used to study the intracranial, extracranial, peripheral, and abdominal vessels, and the cardiac chambers. Although DSA techniques are by no means uniform, imaging rates for those first four anatomic regions are typically one image per second. Generally, a sequence of 10 to 15 short, intense exposures is made and only one or two of the resultant difference images are ultimately used. Consequently, there is significant patient exposure that does not result in a final diagnostic image. As an alternative, Kruger(1) and Gould et al. (2) have independently proposed imaging schemes that employ recursive digital temporal filtering in conjunction with low-intensity, continuous X-ray exposures. Such methods appear viable in some applications. As an alternative, Kruger and Liu(3) and Riederer et al. (4) have proposed the concept of “matched filtering” (MF) as a more efficient means of generating DSA images. Additionally, Enzmann et al. (5) and Maier et al. (6) have studied simple temporal integration techniques. This chapter is a review of the theory and applications of this technique.


Digital Subtraction Angiography Difference Image Matched Filter Digital Subtraction Angiography Image Temporal Subtraction 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. J. Riederer
    • 1
  • S. J. Riederer
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of RadiologyDuke University Medical CenterDurhamUSA

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