Shedding of Plasma Membrane Fragments

Neoplastic and Developmental Importance
  • Douglas Dillon Taylor
  • Paul Henry Black
Part of the Developmental Biology book series (DEBO, volume 3)


It has been hypothesized that neoplasia may result from some aberration of cell differentiation. The evidence supporting this viewpoint includes production by tumors of substances normally associated exclusively with fetal tissues, such as placental-type alkaline phosphatase (Doellgast and Fishman, 1975; Fishman et al., 1975); formation by tumors of materials normally produced by other cell types, such as the ectopic production of hormones (Stolbach et al., 1976; Nishiyama et al, 1980; Ahluwalia et al, 1981); and changes in the histo logical composition of tumor cells, such as different levels of differentiation present in some teratocarcinomas (Goodfellow and Andrews, 1982).


Plasminogen Activator Tumor Antigen Membrane Vesicle Ascites Fluid Murine Melanoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahluwalia, B., Jackson, M. A., Jones, G. W., Williams, A. O., Rao, M. S., and Rajgunu, S., 1981, Blood hormone profiles in prostate cancer patients in high risk and low risk populations, Cancer 48:2267–2273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Albrecht-Buehler, G., 1981, Does blebbing reveal the convulsive flow of liquid and solutes through the cytoplasmic meshwork, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 44:45–49.Google Scholar
  3. Alexander, P., 1974, Escape from immune destruction by the host through shedding of surface antigens: Is this a characteristic shared by malignant and embryonic cells?, Cancer Res. 34:2077–2082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Badger, A. M., Cooperband, S. R., Merluzzi, V. J., and Glasgow, A. H., 1977, Immunosuppressive activity of ascitic fluid from patients with cancer metastatic to the peritoneum, Cancer Res. 37:1220–1226.Google Scholar
  5. Baldwin, R. W., and Robins, R. A. 1977, Induction of tumor-immune responses and their interac tions with the developing tumor, in: Contemporary Topics in Molecular Immunology. Vol. 6 (R. R. Porter and G. L. Ada eds.), pp. 177–207, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Baldwin, R. W., Bowen, J. G., and Price, M. R., 1973, Detection of circulating hepatoma D23 antigen and immune complexes in tumor bearer serum, Br. J. Cancer 28:16–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bast, R. C., Klein, S. ,Inbar, M. ,Karnovsky, M. ,Knapp, R. C, and Greene, M. l. ,1983, Tumor cell membrane vesicles block T cell mediated cytotoxicity and induce TS1 suppressor cells, Fed. Proc. 42:1081.Google Scholar
  8. Beers, W. H., Strickland, S., and Reich, E., 1975, Ovarian plasminogen activator: Relationship to ovulation and hormonal regulation, Cell 6:387–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Black, P. H., 1980, Shedding from the surface of normal and cancer cells, Adv. Cancer Res. 32:75– 199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Blumberg, P. M., and Robbins, P. W., 1975, Effect of proteases on activation of resting chick embryo fibroblasts and on cell surface proteins, Cell 6:137–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Boraschi, D., and Niederhuber, J. E., 1982, Regulation of macrophage suppression and cytotoxicity by interferon: Role of la bearing macrophages, J. Immunol. 129:1854–1858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boschek, C. B., 1982, Organizational changes of cytoskeletal proteins during cell transformation, in: Advances in Viral Oncolgoy ,Vol. 1 (G. Klein, ed.), pp. 173–187, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Bunge, R., Glaser, L., Lieberman, M., Raben, D., Salzer, J. ,Whittenberger, B., and Woolsey, T., 1979, Growth control by cell to cell contact, J. Supramol. Struct. 11:175–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Burger, M. M., 1979, The cell surface and metastasis, in: Biology of the Cancer Cell (K. Letnansky, ed.], pp. 193–208, Kugler Publications, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  15. Bystryn, J. C., 1976, Release of tumor associated antigens by murine melanoma cells, J. Immunol. 116:1302–1305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bystryn, J. C, Schenkein, I., and Baur, S., 1974, Partial isolation and characterization of antigen(s) associated with murine melanoma, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 52:1263–1269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Calafat, J. ,Hilgers,). ,van Blitterswijk, W. J. ,Verbeet, M., and Hageman, P. C, 1976, Antibodyinduced modulation and shedding of mammary tumor virus antigens on the surfaces of 6R ascites leukemia cells as compared with normal antigens, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 56:1019–1023.Google Scholar
  18. Chew, E. C, and Wallace, A. C., 1976, Demonstration of fibrin in early state of experimental metastases, Cancer Res. 36:1904–1909.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cone, R. E., Marchalonis, J. J. ,and Rolley, R. T., 1971, Lymphocyte membrane dynamics: Metabolic release of cell surface proteins, J. Exp. Med. 134:1373–1384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Currie, G., 1973, The role of circulating antigen as an inhibitor of tumor immunity in man, Br. J. Cancer (Suppl. 1) 28:153–161.Google Scholar
  21. Currie, G., 1976, Immunological aspects of host resistance to the development and growth of cancer, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 458:135–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Currie, G. A. ,and Alexander, P., 1974, Spontaneous shedding of TSTA by sarcoma cells: Its possible role in facilitating metastatic spread, Br. J. Cancer 29:72–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Currie, G. A., and Basham, C, 1972, Serum mediated inhibition of the immunological reactions of the patient to his own tumor: A possible role for circulating antigen, Br. J. Cancer 26:427–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Dainiak, N., and Cohen, C. M., 1982, Surface membrane vesicles from mononuclear cells stimulate erythroid stem cells to proliferate in culture, Blood 60:583–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Davidson, J. F. ,McNicol, G. P., Frank, G. L., Anderson, T. J., and Douglas, A. S., 1969, Plasminogen- activator-producing tumour, Br. Med. J. 1:88–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dietz, M. H., Sy, M. S., Benacerraf, B., Nisonoff, A., Greene, M. I., and Germain, R. N., 1981, Antigen and receptor driven regulatory mechanisms. VII. H-2-restricted anti-idiotypic suppressor factor from efferent suppressor T cells, J. Exp. Med. 153:450–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Doellgast, G. J. ,and Fishman, W. H., 1975, New chromatographic approaches to the separation of human alkaline phosphatase isozymes, in: Isozymes. I. Molecular Structure (C. L. Markert, ed.), pp. 293–314, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Doellgast, G. J., Taylor, D. D., and Roh, B. H., 1982, High molecular weight immunoglobulin in ovarian cancer fluids, Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 2:185.Google Scholar
  29. Doljanski, F., and Kapeller, M., 1976, Cell surface shedding: The phenomenon and its possible significance, J. Theor. Biol. 62:253–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dunne,J. ,Fennelly, J. J., and McGeeney, K. ,1967, Separation of alkaline phosphatase enzymes in human serum using gel filtration techniques, Cancer 20:71–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Dvorak, H. F., Quay, S. C, Orenstein, N. S., Dvorak, A. M., Hahn, P., and Bitzer, A. M., 1981, Tumor shedding and coagulation, Science 212:923–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Emerson, S. G., and Cone, R. E., 1979a, Turnover and shedding of la antigens by murine spleen cells in culture, J. Immunol. 122:892–899.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Emerson, S. G., and Cone, R. E., 1979b, Differential effects of colchicine and cytochalasins on the shedding of murine B cell membrane IgM and IgD, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76:6582–6586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Emerson, S. G., and Cone, R. E., 1981,1-Kk and H-2Kk antigens are shed as supramolecular particles in association with membrane lipids, J. Immunol. 127:482–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Evans, R., and Alexander, P., 1970, Cooperation of immune lymphoid with macrophages in tumor immunity, Nature (Lond) 228:620–622.Google Scholar
  36. Evans, R., and Alexander, P., 1971, Rendering macrophages specifically cytotoxic by a factor released from immune lymphoid cells, Transplantation 12:227–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Feldman, J. D., 1972, Immunological enhancement: A study of blocking antibodies, Adv. Immunol. 15:167–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fidler, I. J., 1973, The relationship of embolic homogeneity, number, size and viability to the incidence of experimental metastasis, Eur. J. Cancer 9:223–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fidler, I. J., 1978, Recognition and destruction of target cells by tumoricidal macrophages, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 14:177–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fishman, W. H., Inglis, N. R., Vaitukaitis, J., and Stolbach, L. L., 1975, Regan isoenzyme and human chorionic gonadotrophin in ovarian cancer, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 42:63–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Flores, H. E., and Galston, A. W., 1982, Bleb formation in hepatocytes during drug metabolism is caused by disturbances in thiol and calcium ion homeostasis, Science 217:1257–1261.Google Scholar
  42. Friedberg, S. J. ,and Halpert, M., 1978, Ehrlich ascites tumor cell surface membranes: An abnormal ity in ether lipid content, J. Lipid Res. 19:57–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Garrigues, H. J., Romero, P., Hellstrom, I., and Hellstrom, K. E., 1981, Adherent cells (Macrophages?) in tumor-bearing mice suppress MLC responses, Cell. Immunol. 60:109–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gasic, G. J. ,Boettiger, D., Catalfamo, J. L., Gasic, T. B., and Stewart, G. J. ,1978, Aggregation of platelets and cell membrane vesiculation by rat cells transformed in vitro by RSV, Cancer Res. 38:2950–2955.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gatenby, P. A. ,Basten, A., and Creswick, P., 1981, “Sneaking through”: A T-cell-dependent phenomenon, Br. J. Cancer 44:753–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Geiger, B., Tokuyasu, K. T., Dutton, A. H., and Singer, S. J., 1980, Vinculin, an intracellular protein localized at specialized sites where microfilament bundles terminate at cell membranes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77:4127–4131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Germain, R. N., Waltenbauch, C, and Benacerraf, B., 1980, Antigen specific T cell mediated suppression. V. H-2 linked genetic control of distinct antigen defects in the production and activity of L-glutamic acid-L-tyrosine suppressor factor, J. Exp. Med. 151:1245–1259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Goodfellow, P. N., and Andrews, P. W., 1982, The biology of teratocarcinomas, Nature (Lond.) 300:107–108.Google Scholar
  49. Gross, J., 1974, Collagen biology: Structure, degradation, and disease. The Harvey Lectures ,Series 68, pp. 351–432, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  50. Grossman, Z. ,and Berke, G., 1980, Tumor escape from immune elimination, J. Theoret. Biol. 83:267–296.Google Scholar
  51. Halliday, W. J. ,Maluish, A. E., and Isbister, W. H., 1974, Detection of anti-tumor cell mediated immunity and serum-blocking factors in cancer patients by the leucocyte adherence inhibition test, Br. J. Cancer 29:31–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Halliday, W. J. ,Koppi, T. A. ,Kahn, J. ,and Davis, N. C, 1980, Leukocyte adherence inhibition: Tumor specificity of cellular and serum-blocking reactions in human melanoma, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 65:327–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Harker, L. A., and Slichter, S. J. ,1972, Platelet and fibrinogen consumption in man, N. Engl. J. Med. 287:999–1005.]PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Hashimoto, K., Yamanishi, Y., Maeyens, E. ,Dabbous, M. K., and Kanzaki, T., 1973, Collagenolytic activities of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, Cancer Res. 33:2790–2801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Heath, J. P., and Dunn, G. A. ,1978, Cell to substratum contacts of chick fibroblasts and their relation to the microfilament system, J. Cell Sci. 29:197–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hellstrom, K. E., and Brown, J. P., 1979, Tumor antigens, in: The Antigens (M. Sela, ed.), Vol. 5, pp. 1–82, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  57. Hellstrom, l. ,Hellstrom, K. E., Evans, C. A., Huppner, G. H., Pierce, G. E., and Yang, P. S., 1969, Serum-mediated protection of neoplastic cells from inhibition by lymphocytes immune to tumor-specific antigens, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 62:362–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hellstrom, K. E., Hellstrom, I., and Nepom, J. T. ,1977, Specific blocking factors-Are they important? Biochim. Biophys. Acta 473:121–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Hellstrom, K. E., Hellstrom, I. ,and Nelson, K., 1982, Antigen specific suppressor (“blocking”) factors in tumor immunity, in: Pathological Membranes (A. Nowotny, ed.), pp. 1–39, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  60. Herberman, R. B., 1977, Tumor immunology and immunotherapy, Laryngoscope 87:722–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Herberman, R. B., Holden, H. T., Djeu, J. Y., Jerrel, T. R., Varesi, L., Tagliabue, A. ,White, S. L., Ohelen, J. R., and Dean, J. H., 1979, Macrophages as regulators of immune responses against tumors, Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 121B:361–379.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hewitt, H. B., Blake, E. R., and Walder, A. S., 1976, A critique of the evidence for active host defense against cancer based on personal studies of 27 murine tumors of spontaneous origin, Br. J. Cancer 33:241–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hibbs, B. J., Jr., 1973, Macrophage non-immunologic recognition: Target cell factors related to contact inhibition, Science 180:868–870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Horwitz, A. L., Kelman, J. A. ,and Crystal, R. G., 1976, Activation of alveolar macrophage collagenase by a neutral protease secreted by the same cell, Nature (Lond.) 264:772–774.Google Scholar
  65. Huang, C. C, Tsai, C. M., and Canellakis, E. S., 1974, Iodination of cell membranes. I. Characterization of HeLa cell membrane surface proteins, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 332:59–68.Google Scholar
  66. Jennings, R. C, Brocklehurst, D., and Hirst, M., 1970, A comparative study of alkaline phosphatase enzymes using starch gel electrophoresis with special reference to high molecular weight enzymes, Clin. Chim. Acta 30:509–517.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Keller, R., 1973, Cytostatic elimination of syngeneic rat tumor cells in vitro by non-specifically activated macrophages, J. Exp. Med. 138:625–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kellner, B., and Sugar, J., 1967, Morphological factors accompanying growth and invasion, in: Endogenous Factors Influencing Host-Tumor Balance (R. W. Wissler, T. L. Doa, and S. Wood, eds.), pp. 239–273, Chicago University Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  69. Laposata, M., Dovnarsky, D. K., and Shin, H. S., 1983, Thrombin-induced gap formation in confluent endothelial cell monolayers in vitro, Blood 62:549–556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Lazarides, E., and Burridge, K., 1975, Actinin: Immunofluorescent localization of a muscle structural protein in nonmuscle cells, Cell, 6:289–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Lerner, M. P., Lucid, S. W., Wen, G. J., and Nordquist, R. E., 1983, Selected area membrane shedding by tumor cells, Cancer Lett. 20:125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Liepins, A. ,1983, Possible role of microtubules in tumor cell surface membrane shedding, permeability, and lympholysis, Cell. Immunol. 76:120–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Liepins, A. ,and Hillman, A. J., 1981, Shedding of tumor cell surface membranes, Cell Biol. Int. Rep. 5:15–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Liotta, L. A. ,Kleinerman, J. ,Catanzaro, P., and Rynbrandt, D., 1977, Degradation of basement membrane by murine tumor cells, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 58:1427–1431.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Loveless, S. E., and Munson, A. E., 1981, Maleic vinyl ether activation of murine macrophages against lung metastasizing tumor, Cancer Res. 41:3901–3906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Majno, G., Shea, S. M., and Leventhal, M., 1969, Endothelial contraction induced by histaminetype mediators, J. Cell Biol. 42:647–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Marotti, K. R., Berlin, D., and Strickland, S., 1982, The production of distinct forms of plasminogen activator by mouse embryonic cells, Dev. Biol. 90:154–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Maynard, J. R., Heckman, C. A., Pitlick, F. A., and Nemerson, Y., 1975, Association of tissue factor activity with the surface of cultured cells, J. Clin. Invest. 55:814–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Mclntyre, J. A. ,and Faulk, W. P., 1980, Cross-reactions between cell surface membrane antigens of human trophoblast and cancer cells, Placenta 1:197–207.Google Scholar
  80. McNutt, N. S., Culp, L. A., and Black, P. H., 1971, Contact-inhibited revertant cell lines isolated from SV40-transformed cells. II. Ultrastructural study, J. Cell Biol. 50:691–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. McNutt, N. S., Culp, L. A., and Black, P. H., 1973, Contact inhibited revertant cell lines isolated from SV40-transformed cells. IV. Microfilament distribution and cell shape in untransformed, transformed, and revertant Balb/c 3T3 cells, J. Cell Biol. 56:412–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Mongini, P. K. A., and Rosenberg, L. T., 1975, Inhibition of lymphocyte trapping by cell-free ascitic fluids cultivated in syngeneic mice, J. Immunol. 114:650–654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Mosesson, M. W., Colman, R. W., and Sherry, S., 1968, Chronic intravascular coagulation syndrome. Report of a case with special studies of an associated plasma cryoprecipitate, N. Engl. J. Med. 278:815–821.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Neurath, H., and Walsh, K. A., 1976, Role of proteolytic enzymes in biological regulation (a review), Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 73:3825–3832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Nishiyama, T., Stolbach, L. L., Rule, A. H., DeLellis, R. A., Inglis, N. R., and Fishman, W. H., 1980, Expression of oncodevelopmental markers in tumor tissues and uninvolved bronchial mucosa, an immunohistochemical study, Acta Histochem. Cytochem. 13:245–253.Google Scholar
  86. Nowotny, A., Groshman, J., Abdelnoor, A., Note, N., Jang, C, and Waltersdroff, R., 1974, Escape of TA3 tumors from allogenic immune rejection. Theory and experiments, Eur. J. Immunol. 4: 73–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Osborn, M., Franke, W., and Weber, K., 1980, Direct demonstration of the presence of two immunologically distinct intermediate-sized filament systems in the same cell by double immunofluorescence microscopy, Exp. Cell Res. 125:37–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Ossowski, L., and Reich, E., 1980, Experimental model for quantitative study of metastasis, Cancer Res. 40:2300–2309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Peretz, H., Toister, Z., Laster, V., and Loyter, A., 1974, Fusion of intact human erythrocytes and erythrocyte ghosts, J. Cell Biol. 63:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Price, G. B., and McCulloch, E. A., 1978, Cell surfaces and the regulation of hemopoiesis, Semin. Hematol. 15:283–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Raz, A., and Geiger, B., 1982, Altered organization of cell substrate contacts and membrane-associated cytoskeleton in tumor cell variants exhibiting different metastatic capabilities, Cancer Res. 42:5183–5190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Raz, A. ,Inbar, M., and Goldman, R., 1977, A differential interaction in vitro of mouse macrophages with normal lymphocytes and malignant lymphoma cells, Eur. J. Cancer 13:605–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Raz, A., Goldman, R., Yuli, I., and Inbar, M., 1978, Isolation of plasma membrane fragments and vesicules from ascites fluids of lymphoma bearing mice and their possible role in the escape mechanism of tumors from host immune rejection, Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 4:53–59.Google Scholar
  94. Richert, N. D., and Ryan, R. J. ,1977, Proteolytic enzyme activation of rat ovarian adenylate cyclase, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:4857–4861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Roblin, R., Chou, I. H., and Black,P. H., 1975, Proteolytic enzymes, cell surface changes, and viral transformation. Adv. Cancer Res. 22:203–260.Google Scholar
  96. Rose, G. G., and Robertson, P. B., 1977, Collagenolysis by human gingival fibroblast cell lines, J. Dent. Res. 56:416–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Rosenberg, S. A. ,Parker, G. A., and Thorpe, W. P., 1978, Expression of oncofetal antigens by murine and human cells in tissue culture, Isr. J. Med. Sci. 14:98–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Rutishauser, U., Thiery, J. P., Brackenbury, R., Sela, B.-A., and Edelman, G. M., 1976, Mechanisms of adhesion among cells from neural tissues of the chick embryo, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 73:577–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Sack, G. H., Jr., Levin, J., and Bell, W. R., 1977, Trousseau’s syndrome and other manifestations of chronic disseminated coagulopathy in patients with neoplasms, Medicine(Baltimore) 56:1–37.Google Scholar
  100. Schlager, S. I., Ohanian, S. H., and Borsos, T., 1978, Identification of lipids associated with the ability of tumor cells to resist humoral immune attack, J. Immunol. 120:472–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Tumor cells secrete a vascular permeability factor that promotes accumulation of ascites fluid, Science 219:983–985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Shapiro, S. Z., and August, J. T., 1976, Proteolytic cleavage events in oncornavirus protein syn thesis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 458:375–396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Sherman, M. I., Strickland, S., and Reich, E. ,1976, Differentiation of early mouse embryonic and teratocarcinoma cells in vitro: Plasminogen activator production, Cancer Res. 36:4208–4216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Shinitzky, M. ,and Inbar, M., 1976, Microviscosity parameters and protein mobility in biological membranes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 433:133–149.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Shinkai, K. ,and Akeido, H., 1972, A multienzyme complex in serum of hepatic cancer, Cancer Res. 32:2307–2313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Siekevitz, P., 1972, The turnover of proteins and the usage of information, J. Theor. Biol. 37:321–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Singer, R. M., White, L. J. ,Perry, J. E. ,and Doellgast, G. J., 1975, The release of high molecularweight alkaline phosphatase and leucine aminopeptidase into the media of cultured human cells, Cancer Res. 35:3048–3050.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sjogren, H. O., 1965, Transplantation methods as a tool for detection of tumor-specific antigens, Prog. Exp. Tumor Res. 6:289–322.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Smith, K. K., and Strickland, S., 1981, Structural components and characteristics of Reichert’s membrane, an extra-embryonic basement membrane, J. Biol. Chem. 256:4654–4661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Snyder, J. ,and Mcintosh, J. R., 1976, Biochemistry and physiology of microtubules, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 45:699–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Stathakis, N. E. ,Mosesson, M. W., Chen, A. B., and Galanakis, D. K., 1978, Cryoprecipitation of fibrin-fibrinogen complexes induced by the cold-insoluble globulin of plasma, Blood ,51:1211–1222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Stolbach, L. L. ,Inglis, N. R., Lin, C. W., Turksoy, R., Fishman, W. H., Marchant, D., and Rule, A. ,1976, Measurement of Regan isoenzyme, HCG, CEA, and histaminase in the serum and effusion fluids of patients with cancer of the breast, ovary, or lung, in: OncodeveJopmental Gene Expression (W. H. Fishman and S. Sell, eds.), pp. 433–444, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  113. Strickland, S., 1980, Plasminogen activator in early development, in: Development in Mammals (M. H. Johnson, ed.), pp. 81–100, Elsevier/North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  114. Strickland, S., and Beers, W. H., 1976, Studies on the role of plasminogen activator in ovulation. In vitro response of granulosa cells to gonadotropins, cyclic nucleotides and prostaglandins, J. Biol. Chem 251:5694–5702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Strickland, S., Reich, E., and Sherman, M. I. ,1976, Plasminogen activator in early embryogenesis. Enzyme production by trophoblast and parietal endoderm, Cell 9:231–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Stutman, O. ,1975, Immunodepression and malignancy, Adv. Cancer Res. 22:261–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Svanberg, L., and Astedt, B., 1975, Coagulative and fibrinolytic properties of ascitic fluid associated with ovarian tumors, Cancer 35:1382–1387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Tada, T., Taniguchi, M., and Takemori, T., 1975, Properties of primed suppressor T cells and their products, Transpl. Rev. 26:106–129.Google Scholar
  119. Taylor, D. D., and Black, P. H., 1985, Inhibition of Macrophage la antigen expression by shed plasma membrane vesicles from metastatic murine melanoma lines, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 74:859–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Taylor, D. D., Homesley, H. D. ,and Doellgast, G. J., 1980, Binding of specific peroxidase-labeled antibody to placental-type phosphatase on tumor-derived membrane fragments, Cancer Res. 40:4064–4069.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Taylor, D. D., Chou, I. N., and Black, P. H., 1983a, Isolation of plasma membrane fragments from cultured murine melanoma cells, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 113:470–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Taylor, D. D., Homesley, H. D., and Doellgast, G. J., 1983b, “Membrane associated” immunoglobulins in cyst and ascites fluids of ovarian cancer patients, Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 3:7–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Taylor, D. D., Levy, E. M., and Black, P. H., 1985, Shed membrane vesicles: A mechanism for tumornduced immunosuppression, in: Immunity to Cancer (A. E. Reif, and M. Mitchell, eds), pp. 369–373, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  124. Thomson, D. M. P., 1975, Soluble tumour-specific antigen and its relationship to tumour growth, Int. J. Cancer 15:1016–1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Ting, C. C, and Herberman, R. B., 1975, Specific afferent interference by antiserum of in vivo immunity, Nature (Lond.J 257:801–802.Google Scholar
  126. Unanue, E. R., 1972, The regulatory role of macrophage in antigenic stimulation, Adv. Immunol. 15:95–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Vaheri, A., and Mosher, D. F., 1978, High molecular weight, cell surface-associated glycoprotein (fibronectin) lost in malignant transformation, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 516:1–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. van Blitterswijk, W. J., Emmelot, P., Hilkmann, H. A., Hilgers, J. ,and Feltkamp, C. A. ,1979, Rigid plasma-membrane derived vesicles, enriched in tumour-associated surface antigens (MLr) occurring in the ascites fluid of a murine leukaemia (GRSL), Int. J. Cancer 23:62–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. van Blitterswijk, W. J., DeVeer, G., Krol, J. H., and Emmelot, P., 1982, Comparative lipid analysis of purified plasma membranes and shed extracellular membrane vesicles from normal murine thymocytes and leukemia GRSL cells, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 688:495–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. van der Bosch, H., 1982, Phospholipase, in: Phospholipids (J. N. Hawthorne and G. B. Ansell, eds.), pp. 313–358, Elsevier Biomedical Press, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  131. von Eyben, F. E., and Arends, J., 1983, Suppression of the mitogen response of normal lymphocytes by serum from patients with testicular germ cell tumors, Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 4:5–10.Google Scholar
  132. Wang, B. S., McLoughlin, G. A., Richie, J. P., and Mannick, J. A., 1980, Correlation of the produc tion of plasminogen activator with tumor metastasis in B16 mouse melanoma cell lines, Cancer Res. 40:288–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Werb, Z., Mainardi, C. L., and Vater, C. A., 1977, Endogenous activation of latent collagenase by rheumatoid synovial cells. Evidence for a role of plasminogen activator, N. Engl. J. Med. 296:1017–1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Whisler, R. L., and Yates, A. J. ,1980, Regulation of lymphocyte responses by human gangliosides, J. Immunol. 125:2106–2111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Wilson, E. L., and Reich, E., 1978, Plasminogen activator in chick fibroblasts: Induction of synthesis by retinoic acid; synergism with viral transformation and phorbol ester, Cell 15:385–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Witte, O. N., Tsukamoto-Adey, A., and Weissman, I. L., 1977, Cellular maturation of oncornavirus glycoproteins: Topological arrangement of precursor and product forms in cellular membranes, Virology 76:539–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Zacharski, L. R., and Mclntyre, O. R., 1972, Physical stability of cell culture procoagulants detectable in first stage coagulation factor assays, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 139:713–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Zetter, B. R., Chen, L. B., and Buchanan, J. M. ,1976, Effects of protease treatment on growth, morphology, adhesion, and cell surface proteins of secondary chick embryo fibroblasts, CeJJ 7:407–412.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas Dillon Taylor
    • 1
  • Paul Henry Black
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Hubert H. Humphrey Cancer Research CenterBoston University School of MedicineBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations