Advertisement

Prevention of Developmental Disorders

  • Edward M. Ornitz

Abstract

In this chapter we will consider prevention of four representative developmental disabilities: infantile autism, developmental dysphasia, developmental dyslexia, and attention deficit disorder. Among these syndromes there are acquired or symptomatic forms secondary to some known etiological factor. When these secondary cases have been identified by appropriate differential diagnostic procedures, there remains an unexplained set of core syndromes, each characterized by a unique set of disabilities which, with respect to our current state of knowledge, must be considered developmental and cannot at the moment be attributed to any specific cause. These syndromes or sets of behavior are considered developmental; they appear to be inborn, with antecedents dating from the time of pregnancy, delivery, or shortly after birth; and they are modified with the maturation of the child in whom they occur. Being developmental in this sense, and of unspecified etiology, there is little that can be done in terms of primary prevention. Primary prevention is the prevention of the occurrence, or at least the expression, of the disability; secondary prevention is something less ambitious. Consequently, when we speak of prevention of these developmental disabilities, we are considering secondary prevention. Secondary prevention can be understood to be concerned with the prevention of secondary effects of these disorders, that is, complications, side effects, and preventable exacerbations of the primary disability. Complications and side effects may include distress and discomfort, not only to the child but also to his family and to society at large, including the educational system, in which the child grows and develops.

Keywords

Tardive Dyskinesia Autistic Child Conduct Disorder Reading Disability Child Psychiatry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abikoff, H. (1979). Cognitive training interventions in children: Review of a new approach. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 12, 65–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abikoff, H., & Gittelman, R. (1984). Does behavior therapy normalize the classroom behavior of hyperactive children? Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 449–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alpern, G. D. (1967). Measurement of “untestable” autistic children. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 72, 478–486.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aman, M. G. (1982). Stimulant drug effects in developmental disorders and hyperactivity—Toward a resolution and disparate findings. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 385–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aman, M. G. (1984). Hyperactivity: Nature and the syndrome and its natural history. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 39–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Aman, M. G., & Werry, J. S. (1982a). Children’s reading disorders: Problems of definition and a two-year follow-up. Australian Pediatric Journal, 18, 268–272.Google Scholar
  7. Aman, M. G., & Werry, J. S. (1982b). Methylphenidate and diazepam in severe reading retardation. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 31–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-III, 3rd ed.).Google Scholar
  9. Anderson, L. T., Campbell, M., Grega, D. M., Perry, R., Small, A. M., & Green, W. H. (1984). Haloperidol in the treatment of infantile autism: Effects on learning and behavioral symptoms. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 1195–1202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Anthony, E. J. (1962). Low-grade psychosis in childhood. In B. W. Richards (Ed.), Proceedings of the London Conference of Scientific Study of Mental Deficiencies (Vol. 2, pp. 398–410 ). London: May & Baker.Google Scholar
  11. Arnold, G., & Schwartz, S. (1983). Hemispheric lateralization of language in autistic and aphasic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 129–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. August, G. J. (1983). A genetic marker associated with infantile autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 813.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. August, G. J., & Stewart, M. A. (1982). Is there a syndrome of pure hyperactivity? British Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 305–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. August, G. J., & Stewart, M. A. (1983). Familial subtypes of childhood hyperactivity. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 171, 362–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. August, G. J., Stewart, M. A., & Tsai, L. (1981). The incidence of cognitive disabilities in the siblings of autistic children. British Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 416–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. August, G. J., Stewart, M. A., & Holmes, C. S. (1983). A four-year follow-up of hyperactive boys with and without conduct disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 192–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bartak, L., & Rutter, M. (1971). Educational treatment of autistic children. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Infantile autism—Concepts, characteristics and treatment (pp. 258–280 ). London: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  18. Bartak, L., Rutter, M., & Cox, A. (1975). A comparative study of infantile autism and specific developmental receptive language disorder: I. The children. British Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 127–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Baskett, S. J. (1983). Tardive dyskinesia and treatment of psychosis after withdrawal of neuroleptics. Brain Research Bulletin, 11, 173–174.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bender, L. (1956). Schizophrenia in childhood—its recognition, description and treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 26, 499–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bender, L., & Freedman, A. M. (1952). A study of the first three years in the maturation of schizophrenic children. Quarterly Journal of Child Behavior, 4, 245–272.Google Scholar
  22. Bender, L., Freedman, A., Grugett, A. E., Jr., & Helme, W. (1952). Schizophrenia in childhood: A confir-mation of the diagnosis. Transactions of the American Neurological Association, 77, 67–73.Google Scholar
  23. Benton, A. (1978). Some conclusions about dyslexia. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge (pp. 451–476 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Benton, A. L., & Pearl D. (Eds.). (1978). Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Berger, M., & Yule, W. (1972). Cognitive assessment in young children with language delay. In M. Rutter & J. A. M. Martin (Eds.), The child with delayed speech. Clinics in developmental medicine #43 (pp. 120–135 ). Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  26. Bishop, D. V. M., & Butterworth, G. E. (1980). Verbal-performance discrepancies: Relationship to birth risk and specific reading retardation. Cortex, 16, 375–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Bloch, J., Gersten, E., & Kornblum, S. (1980). Evaluation of a language program for young autistic children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 45, 76–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Boder, E. (1973). Developmental dyslexia: A diagnostic approach based on three atypical reading patterns. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 15, 663–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Book, J. A., Nichtern, S., & Gruenberg, E. (1963). Cytogenetical investigations in childhood schizophrenia. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 39, 309–323.Google Scholar
  30. Brawley, E. R., Harris, F. R., Allen, K. E., Fleming, R. S., & Peterson, R. F. (1969). Behavior modification of an autistic child. Behavioral Science, 14, 87–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Breger, L. (1965). Comments on “building social behavior in autistic children by use of electric shock.” Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1, 110–113.Google Scholar
  32. Brown, J. (1960). Prognosis from presenting symptoms of preschool children with atypical development. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 30, 382–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brown, J. L. (1969). Adolescent development of children with infantile psychosis. Seminars in Psychiatry, 7, 79–89.Google Scholar
  34. Brown, J. L., & Reiser, D. E. (1963). Follow-up study of preschool children of atypical development (infantile psychosis)—Later personality patterns in adaptation to maturational stress. American Journal of Ortho-psychiatry, 33, 336–338.Google Scholar
  35. Brown, W. T., Jenkins, E. C., Friedman, E., Brooks, J., Wisniewski, K., Raguthu, S., & French, J. (1982). Autism is associated with the fragile-X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 72, 303–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Browning, D. H., & Ferry, P. C. (1976). Tardive dyskinesia in a ten-year-old boy. Clinical Pediatrics, 75, 955–957.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Call, J. D. (1963). Interlocking affective freeze between an autistic child and his “as-if” mother. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 2, 2–15.Google Scholar
  38. Campbell, M., Cohen, I. L., & Anderson, L. T. (1981). Pharmacotherapy for autistic children: A summary of research. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 26, 265–273.Google Scholar
  39. Campbell, M., Grega, D. M., Green, W. H., & Bennett, W. G. (1983). Neuroleptic-induced dyskinesias in children. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 6, 207–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Campbell, S. B., Szumowski, E. K., Ewing, L. J., Gluck, D. S., & Breaux, A. M. (1982). A multidimensional assessment of parent-identified behavior problem toddlers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 569–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Campbell, S. B., Breaux, A. M., Ewing, L. J., & Szumowski, E. K. (1984). A one-year follow-up study of parent-referred hyperactive preschool children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 243–249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Cantwell, D. (1975). Genetic studies of hyperactive children; psychiatric illness in biological and adopting parents. In R. Fleve, D. Rosenthal, & H. Brill (Eds.), Genetic research in psychiatry (pp. 273–280 ). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Carey, W. B., & McDevitt, S. C. (1980). Minimal brain dysfunction and hyperkinesis: A clinical viewpoint. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 134, 926–929.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Charles, L., & Schain, R. (1981). A four-year follow-up study of the effects of methylphenidate on the behavior and academic achievement of hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 9, 495–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Chess, S. (1977). Follow-up report on autism in children with congenital rubella. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 7, 69–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Childs, B., Finucci, J. M., & Preston, M. S. (1978). A medical genetics approach to the study of reading disability. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge (pp. 299–309 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Churchill, D. W. (1969). Psychotic children and behavior modification. American Journal of Psychiatry, 125, 1585–1590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Churchill, D. W. (1972). The relation of infantile autism and early childhood schizophrenia to developmental language disorders of childhood. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 182–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Clements, S. D. (1966). Minimal brain dysfunction in children (NINDS Monograph No. 3, U.S. Public Health Service Publication No. 1415 ). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  50. Clements, S. D., & Peters, J. E. (1962). Minimal brain dysfunctions in the school-aged child. Archives of General Psychiatry, 6, 185–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Cohen, N. J., & Minde, K. (1983). The ‘hyperactive syndrome’ in kindergarten children: Comparison of children with pervasive and situational symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 443–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Colbert, E., & Koegler, R. (1958). Toe walking in childhood schizophrenia. Journal of Pediatrics, 53, 219–220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Coleman, R. W., & Provence, S. (1957). Environmental retardation (hospitalism) in infants living in families. Pediatrics, 19, 285–292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Comings, D. E., & Comings, B. G. (1984). Tourette’s syndrome and attention deficit disorder with hyper-activity: Are they genetically related? Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 138–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Creak, E. M. (1963). Childhood psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 109, 84–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Creak, E. M., & Ini, S. (1960). Families of psychotic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1, 156–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Darr, G. C., & Worden, F. G. (1951). Case report of twenty-eight years after an infantile autism disorder. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 21, 559–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Davidson, G. C. (1964). A social learning therapy programme with an autistic child. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 2, 149–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. De Ajuriaguerra, J., Jaeggi, F., Guignard, F., Kocher, F., Maquard, M., Roth, S., & Schmid, E. (1976). The development and prognosis of dysphasia in children. In D. M. Morehead & A. E. Morehead (Eds.), Normal and deficient child language (pp. 345–385 ). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  60. Decker, S. N., & DeFries, J. C. (1980). Cognitive abilities in families with reading disabled children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 13, 517–522.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Decker, S. N., & DeFries, J. C. (1981). Cognitive ability profiles in families of reading-disabled children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 23, 217–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. DeFilippis, N. A., & Derby, R. (1980). Application of predictive measures of reading disability in a culturally disadvantaged sample. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 13, 456–458.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. De Hirsch, K. (1967). Differential diagnosis between aphasic and schizophrenic language in children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 32, 3–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. DeMyer, M. K. (1982). Infantile autism: Patients and their families. Year Book Medical Publishers.Google Scholar
  65. DeMyer, M. K., & Ferster, C. B. (1962). Teaching new social behavior to schizophrenic children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 1, 443–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. DeMyer, M. K., Mann, N. A., Tilton, J. R., & Loew, L. H. (1967). Toy-play behavior and use of body by autistic and normal children as reported by mothers. Psychological Reports, 21, 973–981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. DeMyer, M. K., Pontius, W., Norton, J. A., Barton, S., Allen, J., & Steele, R. (1972). Parental practices and innate activity in normal, autistic and brain damaged infants. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 49–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Denckla, M. D. (1977). Minimal brain dysfunction and dyslexia: Beyond diagnosis and exclusion. In M. E. Blaw, I. Rapin, & M. Kinsbourne (Eds.), Topics in child neurology. New York: Spectrum.Google Scholar
  69. Denckla, M. B., Rudel, R. G., & Broman, M. (1981). Tests that discriminate between dyslexic and other learning-disabled boys. Brain and Language, 13, 118–129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. De Negri, M. (1980). Some critical notes about “the epilepsy-aphasia syndrome” in children. Brain Development, 2, 81–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Deuel, R. K. (1981). Minimal brain dysfunction, hyperkinesis, learning disabilities, attention deficit disorder. The Journal of Pediatrics, 98, 912–915.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Deutsch, C. K., Swanson, J. M., Bruell, J. H., Cantwell, D. P., Weinberg, F., & Baren, M. (1982). Over-representation of adoptees in children with the attention deficit disorder. Behavior Genetics, 12, 231–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Deykin, E. Y., & McMahon, B. (1980). Pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal complications among autistic children. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 134, 860–864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Dubey, D. R., O’Leary, S. G., & Kaufman, K. F. (1983). Training parents of hyperactive children in child management: A comparative outcome study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 229–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Dubnoff, B. (1965). The habituation and education of the autistic child in a therapeutic day school. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 35, 385–386.Google Scholar
  76. Dudziak, D. (1982). Parenting the autistic child. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 20, 11–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Dykman, R. A., Ackerman, P. T., & McCray, D. S. (1980). Effects of methylphenidate on selective and sustained attention in hyperactive, reading-disabled, and presumably attention-disordered boys. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168, 745–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Dyme, Z., Sahakian, B. J., Golinko, B. E., & Rabe, E. F. (1982). Perseveration induced by methylphenidate in children: Preliminary findings. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 6, 269–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Easson, W. M. (1971). Symptomatic autism in childhood and adolescence. Pediatrics, 47, 717–722.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Edelbrock, C., Costello, A. J., & Kessler, M. D. (1984). Empirical corroboration of attention deficit disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 285–290.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Eisenberg, L. (1956). Autistic children in adolescence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 112, 607–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Eisenberg, L. (1957). The course of childhood schizophrenia. Archives of Neurological Psychiatry, 78, 69–83.Google Scholar
  83. Eisenberg, L., & Kanner, L. (1956). Early infantile autism: 1943–1955. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 26, 556–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ekstein, R., & Friedman, S. W. (1971). Do you have faith that I’ll make it? Reiss-Davis Clinical Bulletin, 8, 94–105.Google Scholar
  85. Elgar, S. (1966). Teaching autistic children. In J. K. Wing (Ed.), Early childhood autism—Clinical, education and social aspects. London: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  86. Escalona, S. (1948). Some considerations regarding psychotherapy with psychotic children. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 12, 126–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Fay, W. H. (1969). On the basis of autistic echolalia. Journal of Communication Disorders, 2, 38–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Finegan, J., & Quarrington, B. (1979). Pre-, peri-, and neonatal factors in infantile autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 20, 119 - 128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Fischer, I., & Glanville, W. K. (1970). Programmed teaching of autistic children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 23, 90–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Fish, B. (1959). Longitudinal observations of biological deviations in a schizophrenic infant. American Journal of Psychiatry, 116, 25–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Fish, B., Shapiro, T., Campbell, M., & Wile, R. (1968). A classification of schizophrenic children under five years. American Journal of Psychiatry, 124, 109–117.Google Scholar
  92. Folstein, S., & Rutter, M. (1977). Genetic influences and infantile autism. Nature, 265, 726–728.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Forness, S. R. (1982). Diagnosing dyslexia. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 136, 794–799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Forness, S. R., & Kavale, K. A. (1983a). Remediation of reading disabilities, Part One: Issues and Concepts. Learning Disabilities, 2, 141–152.Google Scholar
  95. Forness, S. R., & Kavale, K. A. (1983b). Remediation of reading disabilities, Part Two: Classification and approaches. Learning Disabilities, 2, 153–164.Google Scholar
  96. Fried, I., Tanguay, P. E., Boder, E., Doubleday, C., Greensite, M. (1981). Development of dyslexia: Electrophysiological evidence of clinical subgroups. Brain and Language, 12, 14–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Frith, U. (1971). Spontaneous patterns produced by autistic, normal and subnormal children. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Infantile autism—Concepts, characteristics and treatment. London: Churchill.Google Scholar
  98. Fuller, G. B., & Lovinger, S. L. (1980). Personality characteristics of three subgroups of children with reading disabilities. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 50, 303–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Gadow, K. D. (1983). Pharmacotherapy for behavior disorders. Clinical Pediatrics, 22, 48–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Garcia, B., & Sarvis, M. A. (1964). Evaluation and treatment planning for autistic children. Psychiatry, 10, 530–541.Google Scholar
  101. Garreau, B., Barthélémy, C., Sauvage, D., Leddet, I., & LeLord, G. (1984). A comparison of autistic syndromes with and without associated neurological problems. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, 105–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Geller, B., Guttmacher, L. B., & Bleeg, M. (1981). Coexistence of childhood onset pervasive developmental disorder and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity. American Journal of Psychiatry, 138, 388–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Gillberg, C. (1983a). Perceptual, motor and attentional deficits in Swedish primary school children. Some child psychiatric aspects. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 377–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Gillberg, C. (1983b). Identical triplets with infantile autism and the fragile-X syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 256–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Gillberg, C., & Gillberg, I. C. (1983). Infantile autism: A total population study of reduced optimality in the pre-, peri, and neonatal period. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 153–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Gillberg, C., Carlstrom, G., & Rasmussen, P. (1983). Hyperkinetic disorders in seven year-old children with perceptual, motor, and attentional deficits. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 233–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Gilliam, J. E., Unruh, D., & Haley, K. (1980). The status of nurses’ knowledge and beliefs about autism. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 17, 189–195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Gittelman, M., & Birch, H. G. (1967). Childhood schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 17, 16–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Gittelman, R. (1983). Experimental and clinical studies of stimulant use in hyperactive children and children with other behavioral disorders. In I. Creese (Ed.), Stimulants, neurochemical, behavioral and clinical perspectives (pp. 205–226 ). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
  110. Gittelman, R., & Eskenazi, B. (1983). Lead and hyperactivity revisited. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 827–833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Gittelman, R., & Feingold, I. (1983). Children with reading disorders. I. Efficacy of reading remediation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 167–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Gittelman, R., Abikoff, H., Pollack, E., Klein, D. F., Katz, S., & Mattes, J. (1980). A controlled trial of behavior modification and methylphenidate in hyperactive children. In C. K. Whalen & B. Henker (Eds.), Hyperactive children: The social ecology of identification and treatment. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  113. Gittelman, R., Klein, D. F., & Feingold, I. (1983). Children with reading disorders. II. Effects of methylphenidate in combination with reading remediation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 193–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Goldberg, B., & Soper, H. H. (1963). Childhood psychosis or mental retardation—a diagnostic dilemma. I. Psychiatric and psychological aspects. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 89, 1015–1019.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Golden, G. S. (1982). Neurobiological correlates of learning disabilities. Annals of Neurology, 12, 409–418.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Goldfarb, W., Goldfarb, N., & Pollack, R. C. (1966). Treatment of childhood schizophrenia. A three-year comparison of day and residual treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 14, 119–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Goldfarb, W., Levy, D. M., & Meyers, D. I. (1972). The mother speaks to her schizophrenic child: Language in childhood schizophrenia. Psychiatry, 35, 217–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Goldfarb, W., Mintz, I., & Strook, K. W. (1969). A time to heal—corrective socialization. In A treatment approach to childhood schizophrenia (pp. 1–148 ). New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  119. Gordon, H. W. (1980). Cognitive asymmetry in dyslexic families. Neuropsychologica, 18, 645–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Green, A. H. (1967). Self mutilation in schizophrenic children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 17, 234–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Gualtieri, C. T., & Guimond, M. (1981). Tardive dyskinesia and the behavioral consequences of chronic neuroleptic treatment. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 23, 255–259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Halpern, W. I. (1970). The schooling of autistic children—Preliminary findings. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 40, 665–671.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Hanson, D. R., & Gottesman, I. I. (1976). The genetics, if any, of infantile autism and childhood schizophrenia. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 209–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Havelkova, M. (1968). Follow-up study of 71 children diagnosed as psychotic in preschool age. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 38, 846–857.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Hechtman, L., & Weiss, G. (1983). Long-term outcome of hyperactive children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 53, 532–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Hechtman, L., Weiss, G., & Perlman, T. (1984). Young adult outcome of hyperactive children who received long-term stimulant treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 261–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Hechtman, L., Weiss, G., Perlman, T., & Amsel, R. (1984). Hyperactives as young adults: Initial predictors of adult outcome. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 250–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Henker, B., Whalen, C. K., Bugental, D. B., & Barker, C. (1981). Licit and illicit drug use patterns in stimulant-treated children and their peers. In K. D. Gadow & J. Loney, (Eds.), Psychosocial aspects of drug treatment for hyperactivity. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  129. Hewett, F. M. (1965). Teaching speech to an autistic child through operant conditioning. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 35, 927–936.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Hill, P. J. (1980). Reversals in reading: Are they abnormal? American Journal of Optometry and Physiological Optics, 57, 162–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Hingtgen, J. N., & Churchill, D. W. (1971). Differential effects of behavior modification in four mute autistic boys. In D. W. Churchill, G. D. Alpern, & M. DeMyer (Eds.), Infantile autism. Proceedings of the Indiana University Colloquium, Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  132. Hingtgen, J. N., Coulter, S. K., & Churchill, D. W. (1967). Intensive reinforcement of imitative behavior in mute autistic children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 17, 36–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Hinshaw, S. P., Henker, B., & Whalen, C. K. (1984). Self-control in hyperactive boys in anger-inducing situations: Effects of cognitive-behavioral training and of methylphenidate. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 12, 55–77.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Holmes, G. L., McKeever, M., Saunders, Z. (1981). Epileptiform activity in aphasia of childhood: An epi- phenomenon? Epilepsia, 22, 631–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Holmes, N., Hemsley, R., Rickett, J., & Likierman, H. (1982). Parents as cotherapists: Their perceptions of a home-based behavioral treatment for autistic children. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 331–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Hoshino, Y., Kumashiro, H., Yashima, Y., Tachibana, R., & Watanabe, M. (1982). The epidemiological study of autism in Fukushima-ken. Folia Psychiatrica et Neurologica Japonica, 36, 115–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Howlin, P. (1980). Language. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Scientific foundations of developmental psychiatry (pp. 198–220 ). London: William Heinemann Medical Books.Google Scholar
  138. Hudson, E., & DeMyer, M. K. (1968). Food as a reinforcer in educational therapy of autistic children. Behavior Research and Therapy, 6, 37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Ingram, T. T. S. (1972). The classification of speech and language disorders in young children. In M. Rutter & J. A. M. Martin (Eds.), The child with delayed speech. Clinics in developmental medicine #43 (pp. 13–32 ). Philadelphia, PA: J. P. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  140. Ingram, T. T. S. (1975). Speech disorders in children. In E. H. Lenneberg & E. Lenneberg (Eds.), Foundations of language development (pp. 195–261 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  141. Jansky, J. J. (1978). A critical review of “some developmental and predictive precursors of reading disabilities”. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  142. Jeste, D. V., & Wyatt, R. J. (1982). Therapeutic strategies against tardive dyskinesia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 803–816.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Johnson, C. F., & Prinz, R. (1976). Hyperactivity is in the eye of the beholder. Clinical Pediatrics, 15, 222–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Judd, L. L., & Mandell, A. J. (1968). Chromosome studies in early infantile autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 18, 450–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Kalachnik, J. E., Sprague, R. L., Sleator, E. K., Cohen, M. N., & Ullmann, R. K. (1982). Effect of meth- ylphenidate hydrochloride on stature of hyperactive children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 24, 586–595.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Kanner, L. (1943). Autistic disturbances of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  147. Kanner, L. (1949). Problems of nosology and psychodynamics of early infantile autism. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 19, 416–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Kanner, L. (1954). To what extent is early infantile autism determined by constitutional inadequacies? Research Publications—Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease, 33, 378–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Kanner, L., & Lesser, L. I. (1958). Early infantile autism. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 5, 711–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Kanner, L., Rodriguez, A., & Ashenden, B. (1972). How far can autistic children go in matters of social adaptation? Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 2, 9–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Kaufman, I., Rosenblum, E., Heims, L., & Wilier, L. (1957). Childhood psychosis. I. Childhood schizophrenia— Treatment of children and parents. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 27, 683–690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Kaufman, N. L. (1980). Review of research on reversal errors. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 51, 55–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Kavale, K. A. (1980). Learning disability and cultural disadvantage: The case for a relationship. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 3, 97–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Kavale, K. A., & Forness, S. R. (1983). Hyperactivity and diet treatment: A meta-analysis of the Feingold hypothesis. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16, 324–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Keeler, W. R. (1958). Autistic patterns and defective communication in blind children with retrolental fibro-plasia. In P. H. Hoch & J. Zubin (Eds.), Psychopathology of communication. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  156. Kiernan, C. (1983). The use of nonvocal communication techniques with autistic individuals. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 339–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Kleffner, F. R. (1975). Language disorders in children. Indianapolis, IN: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  158. Kolvin, I., Garside, R. F., & Kidd, J. S. H. (1971). Studies in the childhood psychoses. IV. Parental personality and attitude and childhood psychoses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 403–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Kolvin, I., Ounsted, C., Humphrey, M., & McNay, A. (1971). Studies in the childhood psychoses. II. The phenomenology of childhood psychoses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 385–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Kolvin, I., Ounsted, C., Richardson, L. M., & Garside, R. F. (1971). Studies in the childhood psychoses. HI. The family and social background in childhood psychoses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 396–402.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Kolvin, I., Ounsted, C., & Roth, M. (1971). Studies in the childhood psychoses. V. Cerebral dysfunction and childhood psychoses. British Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 407–414.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Lahey, B. B., Shaughency, E. A., Strauss, C. C., & Frame, C. L. (1984). Are attention deficit disorders with and without hyperactivity similar or dissimilar disorders? Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 302–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Lambert, N. M. (1982). Temperament profiles of hyperactive children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 52, 458–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Lambert, N. M., & Sandoval, J. (1980). The prevalence of learning disabilities in a sample of children considered hyperactive. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 33–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Lambert, N. M., Sandoval, J., & Sassone, D. (1978). Prevalence of hyperactivity in elementary school children as a function of social system definers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 48, 446–463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Lambert, N. M., Sandoval, J., & Sassone, D. M. (1981). Prevalence of hyperactivity and related treatments among elementary school children. In K. D. Gadow & J. Loney (Eds.), Psychosocial aspects of drug treatment for hyperactivity (pp. 249 - 291 ). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  167. Landau, M. W., & Kleffher, F. R. (1957). Syndrome of acquired aphasia with convulsive disorder in children. Neurology, 7, 523–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Leff, R. (1968). Behavior modification and psychoses of childhood: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 69, 369–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Leonard, L. B. (1979). Language impairment in children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 25, 205–232.Google Scholar
  170. Levy, F., & Hobbes, G. (1981). The diagnosis of attention deficit disorder (Hyperkinesis) in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20, 376–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Lewis, S. R., & Van Ferney, S. (1960). Early recognition of infantile autism. Journal of Pediatrics, 56, 510–512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Lewitter, F. I., DeFries, J. C., & Elston, R. C. (1980). Genetic models of reading disabilities. Behavior Genetics, 10, 9–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Leibergott, J. W., Bashir, A. S., & Schultz, M. C. (1984). Dancing around and making strange noises: Children at risk. In A. L. Holland (Ed.), Language disorders in children. San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press.Google Scholar
  174. Loney, J., Weissenburger, F. E., Woolson, R. F., & Lichty, E. C. (1979). Comparing psychological and pharmacological treatments for hyperkinetic boys and their classmates. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 7, 133–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Lotter, V. (1966). Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children. I. Prevalence. Social Psychiatry, 1, 124–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Lotter, V. (1967). Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children. II. Some characteristics of the parents and children. Social Psychiatry, 1, 163–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Lovaas, O. I. (1971). Considerations in the development of a behavioral treatment program for psychotic children. In D. W. Churchill, G. D. Alpern, & M. DeMyer (Eds.), Infantile autism. Proceedings of the Indiana University Colloquium, Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  178. Lovaas, O. I., & Simmons, J. Q. (1969). Manipulation of self-destruction in three retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2, 143–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Lovaas, O. I., Schaeffer, B., & Simmons, J. Q. (1965). Building social behavior in autistic children by use of electric shock. Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1, 99–109.Google Scholar
  180. Lovaas, O. I., Koegel, R., Simmons, J. Q., & Long, J. S. (1973). Some generalization and follow-up measures on autistic children in behavior therapy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 131–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Lowe, T. L., Tanaka, K., Seashore, M. R., Young, J. G., & Cohen, D. J. (1980). Detection of phenylketonuria in autistic and psychotic children. Journal of the American Medical Association, 243, 126–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Lowe, T. L., Cohen, D. J., Detlor, J., Kremenitzer, M. W., & Shaywitz, B. A. (1982). Stimulant medications precipitate Tourette’s syndrome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 247, 1729–1731.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Maccario, M., Hefferen, S. J., Keblusek, S. J., & Lipinski, K. A. (1982). Developmental dysphasia and electroencephalographic abnormalities. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 24, 141–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. MacKeith, R. C., & Rutter, M. (1972). A note on the prevalence of speech and language disorders. In M. Rutter & J. A. M. Martin (Eds.), The child with delayed speech. Clinics in developmental medicine #43 (pp. 48–51 ). Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  185. Marshall, G. R. (1966). Toilet training of an autistic eight-year-old through conditioning therapy: A case report. Behavior Research and Therapy, 4, 242–245.Google Scholar
  186. Martin, G. L., England, G., Kaprowy, E., Kilgour, K., & Pilek, V. (1968). Operant conditioning of kindergarten- class behavior in autistic children. Behavior Research and Therapy, 6, 281 - 294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Martin, J. A. M. (1971). Sensory disorders in the autistic child and complications of treatment. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Infantile autism—Concepts, characteristics and treatment (pp. 286–296 ). London: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  188. Martin, J. A. M. (1972). Hearing loss and hearing behavior. In M. Rutter & J. A. M. Martin (Eds.), The child with delayed speech. Clinics in developmental medicine #43 (pp. 83 - 94 ). Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  189. Mattes, J. A. (1983). The Feingold diet: A current reappraisal. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 16, 319–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Mattes, J. A., & Gittelman, R. (1983). Growth of hyperactive children on maintenance regimen of methyl- phenidate. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 317–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Mattis, S. (1978). Dyslexia syndromes: A working hypothesis that works. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge (pp. 43–58 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  192. Mattis, S., French, J. H., & Rapin, I. (1975). Dyslexia in children and young adults: Three independent neuropsychological syndromes. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 17, 150–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. McClearn, G. E. (1978). Review of “dyslexia-genetic aspects”. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge (pp. 285–297 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  194. McConnell, O. L. (1967). Control of eye contact in an autistic child. Journal of Child Psychiatry, 8, 249–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. McGee, R., Williams, S., Silva, P. A. (1984a). Behavioral and developmental characteristics of aggressive, hyperactive and aggressive-hyperactive boys. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 270–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. McGee, R., Williams, S., & Silva, P. A. (1984b). Background characteristics of aggressive, hyperactive, and aggressive-hyperactive boys. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 280–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. McMahon, R. C. (1980). Genetic etiology in the hyperactive child syndrome: A critical review. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 50, 145–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. McMahon, R. C. (1981). Biological factors in childhood hyperkinesis: A review of genetic and biochemical hypotheses. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 37, 12–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Meryash, D. L., Szymanski, L. S., & Gerald, P. S. (1982). Infantile autism associated with the fragile-X syndrome. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 12, 295–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Metz, J. R. (1965). Conditioning generalized imitation in autistic children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2, 389–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Meyers, D., & Goldfarb, W. (1961). Studies of perplexity in mothers of schizophrenic children. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 3, 551–564.Google Scholar
  202. Meyers, D., & Goldfarb, W. (1962). Psychiatric appraisals of parents and siblings of schizophrenic children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 118, 902–915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. Miller, J. F., Campbell, T. F., Chapman, R. S., & Weismer, S. E. (1984). Language behavior in acquired childhood aphasia. In A. Holland (Ed.), Language disorders in children (pp. 57–97 ). San Diego, CA: College Hill Press.Google Scholar
  204. Minton, J., Campbell, M., Green, W. H., Jennings, S., & Samit, C. (1982). Cognitive assessment of siblings of autistic children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 27, 256–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Moore, M. J., Kagan, J., Sahl, M., & Grant, S. (1982). Cognitive profiles in reading disability. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 105, 41–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. Morrison, J. (1980). Adult psychiatric disorders in parents of hyperactive children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 825–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. Morrison, J. R., & Stewart, M. A. (1973). The psychiatric status of the legal families of adopted hyperactive children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 888–891.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Moskowitz, B. A. (1978). The acquisition of language. Scientific American, 39, 92–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Naidoo, S. (1972). Specific dyslexia. London: Pitman.Google Scholar
  210. National Institutes of Health. (1982). Consensus Development Conference: Defined diets and childhood hyperactivity. Clinical Pediatrics, 21, 627–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Ney, P. G., Palvesky, A. E., & Markely, J. (1971). Relative effectiveness of operant conditioning and play therapy in childhood schizophrenia. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 7, 337–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. O’Connor, N., & Hermelin, B. (1965). Visual analogies of verbal operations. Language and Speech, 8, 197–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. Ornitz, E. M. (1969). Disorders of perception common to early infantile autism and schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 10, 259–274.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Ornitz, E. M. (1971). Childhood autism: A disorder of sensorimotor integration. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Infantile autism—Concepts, characteristics, and treatment (pp. 50–68 ). London: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  215. Ornitz, E. M. (1973). Childhood autism: A review of the clinical and experimental literature. California Medicine, 118, 21–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. Ornitz, E. M. (1974). The modulation of sensory input and motor output in autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 4, 197–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Ornitz, E. M. (1983). The functional neuroanatomy of infantile autism. International Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 85–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Ornitz, E. M., & Ritvo, E. R. (1968). Perceptual inconstancy in early infantile autism. Archives of General Psychiatry, 18, 76–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Ornitz, E. M., & Ritvo, E. R. (1976). The syndrome of autism: A critical review. American Journal of Psychiatry, 133, 609–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. Ornitz, E. M., Guthrie, D., & Farley, A. J. (1977). The early development of autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 7, 207–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Ornitz, E. M., Guthrie, D., & Farley, A. J. (1978). The early symptoms of childhood autism. In G. Serban (Ed.), Cognitive defects in the development of mental illness (pp. 24–42 ). New York: Bruner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  222. Ottenbacher, K. J., & Cooper, H. M. (1983). Drug treatment of hyperactivity in children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 25, 358–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. Owen, F. W. (1978). Dyslexia-genetic aspects. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge (pp. 265–284 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  224. Pelham, W. E., Schnedler, R. W., Bologna, N. C., & Contreras, J. A. (1980). Behavioral and stimulant treatment of hyperactive children: A therapy study with methylphenidate probes in a within-subject design. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13, 221–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Petty, L. K., & Spar, C. J. (1980). Haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia in a ten-year-old girl. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 745–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. Petty, L. K., Ornitz, E. M., Michelman, J. D., & Zimmerman, E. G. (1984). Autistic children who become schizophrenic. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 129–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Pfefferbaum, B., & Overall, J. E. (1984). Decisions about drug treatment in children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 209–214.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Pitfield, M., & Oppenheim, A. M. (1964). Child rearing attitudes of mothers of psychotic children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 5, 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Porrino, L. J., Rapoport, J. L., Behar, D., Ismond, D. R., & Bunney, W. E. (1983). A naturalistic assessment of the motor activity of hyperactive boys. II. Stimulant drug effects. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 688–693.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Porrino, L. J., Rapoport, J. L., Behar, D.,Sceery, W., Ismond, D. R., & Bunney, W. E. (1983). A naturalistic assessment of the motor activity of hyperactive boys. I. Comparison with normal controls. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 681–687.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Provence, S., & Lipton, R. D. (1962). Infants In Institutions. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
  232. Rank, B. (1955). Intensive study and treatment of preschool children who show marked personality deviations, or “atypical development” and their parents. In G. Caplan (Ed.), Emotional problems of early childhood (pp. 491–501 ). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  233. Rapoport, J. L., & Ferguson, H. B. (1981). Biological validation of the hyperkinetic syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 23, 667–682.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Rapoport, J. L., Buchsbaum, M. S., Weingartner, H., Zahn, T. P., Ludlow, C., & Mikkelsen, E. J. (1980). Dextroamphetamine. Its cognitive and behavioral effects in normal and hyperactive boys and normal men. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 933–943.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Rapport, M. D., Murphy, H. A., & Bailey, J. S. (1982). Ritalin vs. response cost in the control of hyperactive children: A within-subject comparison. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15, 205–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Rasmussen, P., Gillberg, C., Waldenstrom, E., & Svenson, B. (1983). Perceptual, motor and attentional deficits in seven-year-old children: Neurological and neurodevelopmental aspects. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 23, 315–333.Google Scholar
  237. Ribon, A., & Joshi, S. (1982). Is there any relationship between food additives and hyperkinesis? Annals of Allergy, 48, 275–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. Ritvo, S., & Provence, S. (1953). Form perception and imitation in some autistic children: Diagnostic findings and their contextual interpretation. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 8, 155–161.Google Scholar
  239. Ritvo, E. R., Spence, M. A., Freeman, B. J., Mason-Brothers, A., Mo, A., & Marazita, M. L. (1985a). Evidence for autosomal recessive inheritance in 46 families with multiple incidences of autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 187–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. Ritvo, E. R., Freeman, B. J., Mason-Brothers, A., Mo. A., & Ritvo, A. M. (1985b). Concordance for the syndrome of autism in 40 pairs of afflicted twins. American Journal of Psychiatry, 142, 74–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. Roche, A. F., Lipman, R. S., Overall, J. E., & Hung, W. (1979). The effects of stimulant medication on the growth of hyperkinetic children. Pediatrics, 63, 847–850.Google Scholar
  242. Rourke, B. P. (1978). Neuropsychological research in reading retardation: A review. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge (pp. 139–171 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  243. Rudel, R. G., Denckla, M. B., & Broman, M. (1981). The effect of varying stimulus context on word-finding ability: Dyslexia further differentiated from other learning disabilities. Brain and Language, 13, 130–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Ruttenberg, B. A. (1971). A psychoanalytic understanding of infantile autism and its treatment. In D. W. Churchill, G. D. Alpern, & M. DeMyer (Eds.), Infantile autism (pp. 145–184 ). Proceedings of the Indiana University Colloquium, Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  245. Ruttenberg, B. A., & Wolf, E. G. (1965). Evaluating the communication of the autistic child. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 32, 314–324.Google Scholar
  246. Rutter, M. (1967). Psychotic disorders in early childhood. In A. J. Coppen & A. Walk (Eds.), Recent developments in schizophrenia—A symposium (pp. 133–158 ). London: Royal Medico-Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  247. Rutter, M. (1970). Autistic children—Infancy to adulthood. Seminars in Psychiatry, 2, 435–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. Rutter, M. (1972). Clinical assessment of language disorders in the young child. In M. Rutter & J. A. M. Martin (Eds.), The child with delayed speech. Clinics in developmental medicine #43 (pp. 33–47 ). Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  249. Rutter, M. (1978). Prevalence and types of dyslexia. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge (pp. 4–28 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  250. Rutter, M. (1982). Syndromes attributed to “minimal brain dysfunction” in childhood. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 21–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. Rutter, M., & Bartak, L. (1971). Causes of infantile autism—Some considerations from recent research. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 20–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Rutter, M., & Lockyer, L. (1967). A five- to fifteen-year follow-up study of infantile psychosis. I. Description of sample. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 1169–1182.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Rutter, M., & Sussenwein, F. (1971). A developmental and behavioral approach to the treatment of preschool autistic children. Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 376–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Rutter, M., Greenfeld, D., & Lockyer, L. (1967). A five- to fifteen-year follow-up study of infantile psychosis. II. Social and behavioral outcome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 1183–1200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Rutter, M., Bartak, L., & Newman, S. (1971). Autism—A central disorder of cognition and language? In M. Rutter (Ed.), Infantile autism—Concepts, characteristics and treatment (pp. 148–171 ). London: Churchill.Google Scholar
  256. Satterfield, J. H., Satterfield, B. T., & Cantwell, D. P. (1980). Multimodality treatment. A two-year evaluation of 61 hyperactive boys. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 915–919.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Satterfield, J. H., Satterfield, B. T., & Cantwell, D. P. (1981). Three-year multimodality treatment study of 100 hyperactive boys. The Journal of Pediatrics, 98, 650–655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Satterfield, J. H., Hoppe, C. M., & Schell, A. M. (1982). A prospective study of delinquency in 110 adolescent boys with attention deficit disorder and 88 normal adolescent boys. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139, 795–798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. Satz, P., Terry, H. G., Friel, J., & Fletcher, J. (1978). Some developmental and predictive precursors of reading disabilities: A six year follow-up. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  260. Savage, V. A. (1971). An approach to treatment in the young autistic child. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Infantile autism—Concepts, characteristics and treatment (pp. 297–307 ). London: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  261. Schopler, E. (1971). Parents of psychotic children as scapegoats. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 4, 17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Schopler, E. (1978). Changing parental involvement in behavioral treatment. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.), Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment (pp. 413–421 ). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  263. Schopler, E. (1982). Evolution in understanding and treatment of autism. Triangle, 21, 51–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. Schopler, E., & Olley, J. G. (1980). Public school programming for autistic children. Exceptional Children, 46, 461–463.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. Schopler, E., & Reichler, R. J. (1971). Developmental therapy by parents with their own autistic child. In M. Rutter (Ed.), Infantile autism—Concepts, characteristics and treatment (pp. 206–227 ). London: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  266. Schopler, E., Brehm, S. S., Kinsbourne, M., & Reichler, R. J. (1971). Effect of treatment structure on development in autistic children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 24, 415–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Schopler, E., Mesibov, G., & Baker, A. (1982). Evaluation of treatment for autistic children and their parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 262–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Schulman, J. L. (1963). Management of the child with early infantile autism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 250–254.Google Scholar
  269. Shapiro, T. (1982). Language and the psychiatric diagnosis of preschool children. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 5, 309–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. Silver, A. A. (1978). Prevention. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge (pp. 351–376 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  271. Silver, L. B. (1981). The relationship between learning disabilities, hyperactivity, distractibility, and behavioral problems. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 20, 385–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Simmons, J. Q., & Lovaas, O. I. (1969). Use of pain and punishment as treatment techniques with childhood schizophrenics. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 23, 23–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Simmons, J. Q., & Reed, B. J. (1969). Therapeutic punishment in severely disturbed children. Current Psychiatric Therapies, 9, 11–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. Sleator, E. K. (1980). Deleterious effects of drugs used for hyperactivity on patients with Gilíes de la Tourette syndrome. Clinical Pediatrics, 19, 453–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Sleator, E. K., & Ullman, R. K. (1981). Can the physician diagnose hyperactivity in the office? Pediatrics, 67, 13–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. Spitz, R. A. (1945). Hospitalism—An inquiry into the genesis of psychiatric conditions in early childhood. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 1, 53–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. Spitz, R. A. (1946). Hospitalism—A follow-up report. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 2, 113–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. Sprague, R. L., & Sleator, E. K. (1977). Methyphenidate in hyperkinetic children: Differences in dose effects on learning and social behavior. Science, 198, 1274–1276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Stevenson, J., & Richman, N. (1976). The prevalence of language delay in a population of three-year-old children and its association with general retardation. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 18, 431–441.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. Stewart, M. A., DeBlois, C. S., & Cummings, C. (1980). Psychiatric disorder in the parents of hyperactive boys and those with conduct disorder. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 21, 283–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Stewart, M. A., Cummings, C., & Singer, S. (1981). The overlap between hyperactive and unsocialized aggressive children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 22, 35–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. Szurek, S. A., & Berlin, I. N. (1956). Elements of psychotherapeutics with the schizophrenic child and his parents. Psychiatry, 19, 1–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. Taft, L. T. (1969). Parents of autistic children. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 11, 104–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Taft, L. T., & Goldfarb, W. (1964). Prenatal and perinatal factors in childhood schizophrenia. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 6, 32–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. Thorley, G. (1983). Childhood hyperactivity and food additives. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 25, 527–539.Google Scholar
  286. Thorley, G. (1984). Hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood: Clinical characteristics. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 16–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Trites, R. L., & Laprade, K. (1983). Evidence for an independent syndrome of hyperactivity. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 24, 573–586.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. Tsai, L. Y., & Stewart, M. A. (1983). Etiological implication of maternal age and birth order in infantile autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 13, 57–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. United States Office of Education. (1977, August 23). Education of Handicapped Children. Federal Register, 42, Part I I.Google Scholar
  290. Varley, C. K. (1984). Diet and the behavior of children with attention deficit disorder. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 23, 182–185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. Vellutino, F. R. (1978). Toward an understanding of dyslexia: Psychological factors in specific reading disability. In A. L. Benton & D. Pearl (Eds.), Dyslexia: An appraisal of current knowledge (pp. 61–111 ). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  292. Vellutino, F. R. (1979). Dyslexia: Theory and research. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.Google Scholar
  293. Waiden, E. L., & Thompson, S. A. (1981). A review of some alternative approaches to drug management of hyperactivity in children. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14, 213–217, 238.Google Scholar
  294. Ward, A. J. (1970). Early infantile autism—diagnosis, etiology, and treatment. Psychological Bulletin, 73, 350–362.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. Ward, T. F., & Hoddinott, B. A. (1965). A study of childhood schizophrenia and early infantile autism. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal, 10, 377–386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. Watson, B. U., Watson, C. S., & Fredd, R. (1982). Follow-up studies of specific reading disability. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 376–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Weiss, B. (1982). Food additives and environmental chemicals and sources of childhood behavior disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 21, 144–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Wenar, C., & Ruttenberg, B. A. (1969). Therapies for autistic children. In J. H. Masserman (Ed.), Current psychiatric therapies. New York: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  299. Wenar, C., Ruttenberg, B. A., Dratman, M. L., & Wolf, E. G. (1967). Changing autistic behavior—The effectiveness of three milieus. Archives of General Psychiatry, 17, 26–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Wender, P. (1971). Minimal brain dysfunction in children. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  301. Whalen, C. K., & Henker, B. (1984). Hyperactivity and the attention deficit disorders: Expanding frontiers. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 31, 397–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. Wilcox, M. J. (1984). Developmental language disorders: Preschoolers. In A. L. Holland (Ed.), Language disorders in children (pp. 101–128 ). San Diego: College Hill Press.Google Scholar
  303. Wing, J. K. (1966). Diagnosis, epidemiology, aetiology. In J. K. Wing (Ed.), Early childhood autism—Clinical, educational and social aspects (pp. 3–49 ). London: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  304. Wing, L. (1981). Management of early childhood autism. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 25, 353–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. Wing, L., & Wing, J. K. (1966). The prescription of services. In J. K. Wing (Ed.), Early childhood autism— Clinical, education and social aspects (pp. 279–298 ). London: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  306. Wolf, E. G., & Ruttenberg, B. A. (1967). Communication therapy for the autistic child. Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 32, 331–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. Wolf, M., Risley, T., & Mees, H. (1964). Application of operant conditioning procedures to the behavior problems of an autistic child. Behavior Research and Therapy, 1, 305–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. Wood, D., Wender, P. H., & Reimherr, F. W. (1983). The prevalence of attention deficit disorder, residual type, or minimal brain dysfunction, in a population of male alcoholic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 140, 95–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. Zahn, T. P., Rapoport, J. L., & Thompson, C. L. (1980). Autonomic and behavioral effects of dextroamphetamine and placebo in normal and hyperactive prepubertal boys. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 8, 145–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward M. Ornitz
    • 1
  1. 1.Neuropsychiatric InstituteUCLALos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations