Advertisement

Prevention during Prenatal and Infant Development

  • Kathleen A. McCluskey-Fawcett
  • Nancy Meck
  • Marybeth Harris

Abstract

At no point in the human lifespan is prevention a more important issue than in the pre-, peri-, and neonatal periods. There are several reasons for this. First, the gestational phase is the most sensitive period of development, and the point in the life span when the developing infant is most vulnerable to environmental assault and trauma. Second, a handicapping condition occurring during this stage results in a medical, psychological, and financial burden being placed on the individual, the family, and society that may last a lifetime. Third, a more subtle implication for preventive issues in this age group is that this period is one of the greatest neural and behavioral plasticity. Plasticity is defined as the ability of the developing nervous system to make adaptive adjustments in response to changes in the internal or external milieu (Jacobson, 1978). If we translate this definition into behavioral terms, evidence suggests that the brain undergoes biological changes as a consequence of experiences that are inferred to result in changes in learning and memory (Lipton, 1976). These latter changes are subsequently manifested as previously unseen behaviors (Scarr-Salapatek, 1975). The key aspect of the preceding as it relates to the issue of prevention is that environmental experiences direct these biological and psychological changes. One may deduce that the manipulation of environmental circumstances can affect, if not actually determine, the potential of any individual. Because plasticity is most evident during the early years of life (Brodal, 1981), it seems reasonable to assume that it is during this time period that interventions designed to prevent or ameliorate handicapping conditions are likely to be most effective in achieving a desirable outcome.

Keywords

Prenatal Care Spina Bifida Preterm Labor Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Diabetic Mother 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel, E. L. (1980). Fetal alcohol syndrome: Behavioral teratology. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 29–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adamson, G. D., & Gare, D. J. (1980). Home or hospital births? Journal of the American Medical Association, 243, 1732–1736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Adler, M. W. (1984). ABC of sexually transmitted diseases. British Medicine Journal, 288, 624–627.Google Scholar
  4. Affonso, D., & Stichler, J. (1980, March). Cesarean birth: Women’s reactions. American Journal of Nursing, pp. 468–470.Google Scholar
  5. Alexander, E. R., & Harrison, H. R. (1983). Role of chlamydia trachomatis in perinatal infection. Reviews of Infectious Diseases, 5, 713–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Allgaier, A. (1978). Alternative birth centers offer family centered care. Health Care Delivery, 52, 97–112.Google Scholar
  7. Annexton, M. (1978). Birthing: A real family affair in California center. Journal of the American Medical Association, 240, 823–826.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Annis, L. F. (1978). The child before birth. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Asher, M., Olson, J., Weigel, J., Morantz, R., Harris, J., Leiberman, B., & Whitney, W. (1979). The myelomeningocele patient: A multidisciplinary approach to care. Journal of Kansas Medical Society, 80, 403–413.Google Scholar
  10. Averitt, S. S. ( 1980, March/April). Adapting the birthing center concept to a traditional hospital setting. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 103–106.Google Scholar
  11. Avery, G. (1981). Neonatology: Pathophysiology and management of the newborn. Philadelphia, PA: J. B. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  12. Bakeman, R., & Brown, J. V. (1980). Early interaction: Consequences for social and mental development at three years. Child Development, 51, 437–447.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ballard, J. L., Holroyde, J., Tsang, R. C., Chang, G., Sutherland, J. M., & Knowles, H. C. (1984). High malformation rates and decreased mortality in infants of diabetic mothers managed after the first trimester of pregnancy (1956–1978). American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 148, 1111–1118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Baltes, P., Reese, H., & Nesselroade, J. (1977). Life-Span developmental psychology: Introduction to research methods. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.Google Scholar
  15. Barnard, K., Bee, H. L., & Hammond, M. A. (1984). Developmental changes in maternal interactions with term and preterm infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 101–113.Google Scholar
  16. Barnett, C. R., Leiderman, P. H., Grobstein, R., & Klaus, M. (1970). Neonatal separation: The maternal side of interactional deprivation. Pediatrics, 45, 197–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Beckwith, L., Cohen, S. E., Kopp, C. B., Parmelee, A. H., & Marcy, T. G. (1976). Caregiver-infant interaction and early cognitive development in preterm infants. Child Development, 47, 579–587.Google Scholar
  18. Berkowitz, G. S., & Kasl, S. V. (1983). The role of psychosocial factors in spontaneous preterm delivery. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 27, 283–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Berkowitz, G. S., Kelsey, J. L., Holford, T. R., & Berkowitz, R. L. (1983). Physical activity and the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 28, 581–588.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Black, N., & Strong, P. M. (1982). Prevention: Who needs it? British Medical Journal, 285, 1543–1544.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Brackbill, Y. (1979). Obstetrical medication and infant behavior. In J. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (pp. 76–125 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  22. Brown, J., Bakeman, R., Snyder, P. A., Fredrickson, W. T., Morgan, S. T.,& Hepler, R. (1975). Interactions of black inner-city mothers with their newborn infants. Child Development, 46, 677–686.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brazelton, T. B., Robey, J. S., & Collier, G. A. (1969). Infant development in the Zinacunteco Indians of Southern Mexico. Pediatrics, 44, 274–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brodal, A. (1981). Neurological anatomy in relation to clinical medicine. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Burnett, C. A., Jones, G. A., Rooks, J., Chen, C. H., Tyler, C. W., & Miller, C. A. (1980). Home delivery and neonatal mortality in N.C. Journal of the American Medical Association, 244, 2741–2745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Caplan, G. (1960). Patterns of parental response to the crisis of premature birth. Psychiatry, 23, 365–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Caplan, G. (1964). Principles of Preventive Psychiatry (pp. 3–113 ). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  28. Chasnoff, I. J., Hatcher, R., & Burns, W.J. (1982). Polydrug- and methadone-addicted newborns: A continuum of impairment? Pediatrics, 70, 210–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Clarren, S. K., & Smith, D. W. (1978). The fetal alcohol syndrome. Journal of Medicine, 298, 1063–1067.Google Scholar
  30. Conner, C. S. (1984). Marijuana and alcohol use in pregnancy. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy, 18, 233–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Connolly, B., Morgan, S., Russell, F. & Richardson, B. (1980). Early intervention with Down Syndrome children. Journal of American Physical Therapy Association, 60, 1405–1408.Google Scholar
  32. Connolly, B., & Russell, F. (1976). Interdisciplinary early intervention program. Journal of American Physical Therapy Association, 56, 155–158.Google Scholar
  33. Cousins, L. C. (1983). Congenital anomalies among infants of diabetic mothers. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 47, 333–338.Google Scholar
  34. Cranley, M. S., Hedahl, K. J., & Pegg, S. H. (1983). Women’s perceptions of vaginal and cesarean deliveries. Nursing Research, 32, 10–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Croghan, N. M., Murphy, T. F., McCluskey, K. A., & Connors, K. A. ( 1981, August). Developmental sequalae of cesarean birth. Paper presented at the International Society for the Study of Behavioral Development, Toronto, Canada.Google Scholar
  36. Crawford, M. (1982). Severe mental handicap: Pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention. British Medical Journal, 285, 762–765.Google Scholar
  37. Darling, R. J. (1983). The birth defective child and the crisis of parenthood: Redefining the situation. In E. J. Callahan & K. A. McCluskey (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Nonnormative life events (pp. 115–143 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  38. Denhoff, E. (1981). Current status of infant stimulation or enrichment programs for children with developmental disabilities. Pediatrics, 67, 32–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. DeVore, J. S. (1979). Psychological anesthesia for obstetrics. In S. M. Shnider & G. LeVinson (Eds.), Anesthesia for obstetrics (pp. 65–74 ). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  40. Dignan, P. St. J. (1981). Teratogenic risk and counseling in diabetics. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 24, 149–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. DiVitto, B., & Goldberg, S. (1979). The effects of newborn medical status on early parent-infant interaction. In T. M. Field, A. M. Sostek, S. Goldberg, & H. H. Shuman (Eds.), Infants born at risk (pp. 311–332 ). New York: Spectrum.Google Scholar
  42. Doering, S. G., & Entwisle, D. R. ( 1977, July). The First Birth. Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  43. Donovan, C. (1983). The challenge of preventive pediatrics. The Practitioner, 227, 309–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Drage, T., Kennedy, C., Berendes, H., Schwartz, B. K., Weiss, K. (1966). The Apgar score as an index of infant morbidity. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 8, 141–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Dubois, D. R. (1975). Indications of an unhealthy relationship between parents and the premature infant. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Nursing, 49, 21–24.Google Scholar
  46. Duenholter, J. H., Jimenez, J. M., & Baumann, G. (1975). Pregnancy performance of patients under fifteen years of age. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 46, 49–52.Google Scholar
  47. Dunn, H. G., McBurney, A. N., Ingram, S., & Hunter, C. M. (1977). Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and the child’s subsequent development: II. Neurological and intellectual maturation to the age of 62 years. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 68, 43–50.Google Scholar
  48. Elliott, J. P., Garite, T. J., Freeman, R. K., McQuown, D. S., & Patel, J. M. (1982). Ultrasonic prediction of fetal macrosomia in diabetic parents. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 60, 159–162.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Eskenazi, B., & Bracken, M. B. (1982). Bendectin (Debendex) as a risk factor for pyloric stenosis. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 144, 919–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Fanaroff, A., Kennell, J., & Klaus, M. (1972). Follow-up of low birth weight infants—The predictive value of maternal visiting patterns. Pediatrics, 49, 287–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ferry, P. (1981). On growing new neurons: Are early intervention programs effective? Pediatrics, 67, 38–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Field, C. S. (1983). Preterm labor. Primary Care, 10, 295–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Field, T. (1980). Supplemental stimulation of preterm neonates. Early Human Development, 4, 301–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Fielding, J. (1978). Adolescent pregnancy revisited. New England Journal of Medicine, 299, 893–896.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Flamm, B. L., Dunnett, C., Fischermann, E., & Quilligan, E. J. (1984). Vaginal delivery following cesarean section: Use of oxytocin augmentation and epidural anesthesia with internal tocodynamic and internal fetal monitoring. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 148, 759–763.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Fogelman, K. (1980). Smoking in pregnancy and subsequent development of the child. Child: Care, Health and Development, 6, 233–249.Google Scholar
  57. Fried, P. A. (1980). Marijuana use by pregnant women: Neurobehavioral effects in neonates. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 6, 415–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Friedman, S. L., Chipman, S. F., Segal, J. W., & Cocking, R. R. (1982). Complementing the success of medical intervention. Seminars in Perinatology, 6, 365–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Fulcher, W. J. (1984). Home birthing. American Family Physician, 29, 26–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Gabbe, S. G., & Quilligan, E. J. (1981). General obstetric management of the diabetic pregnancy. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology. 24, 91–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Gesell, A. (1973). Early evidences of individuality in the human infant. In L. T. Stone, H. T. Smith, & L. B. Murphy (Eds.), The competent infant: Research and commentary (pp. 71–75 ). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  62. Golden, N. L., Kuhnert, B. R., Sokol, R. J., Martier, S., & Bagby, B. S. (1984). Phencyclidine use during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 148, 254–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Golden, N. L., Sokol, J. R., & Rubin, I. L. (1980). Angel dust: Possible effects on the fetus. Pediatrics, 65, 18–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Goldstein, K. M., Caputo, D. V., & Taub, H. B. (1976). The effects of prenatal and perinatal complications on development at one year of age. Child Development, 47, 613–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Greenland, S., Staisch, K. J., Brown, N., & Gross, S.J. (1982). The effects of marijuana use during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 143, 408–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Greenland, S., Richwald, G. A., & Honda, G. D. (1983). The effects of marijuana use during pregnancy. A study in a low-risk home-delivery population. Drugs and Alcohol Dependence, 11, 359–366.Google Scholar
  67. Hanson, J. W., Streissguth, A. P., & Smith, D. W. (1978). The effects of moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy in fetal growth and morphogenesis. The Journal of Pediatrics, 92, 457–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Harrison, G. G., Branson, R. S., & Vaucher, Y. E. (1983). Association of maternal smoking with body composition of the newborn. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 38, 757–762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Haskins, R., Finkelstein, N. W., & Stedman, D. J. (1970). Infant stimulation programs and their effects. Pediatric Annals, 7, 99.Google Scholar
  70. Hayden, A. H., & Haring, N. G. (1976). Early intervention for high risk infants and young children: Programs for Down’s Syndrome children. In T. Tjossen (Ed.), Intervention strategies for high risk infants and young children (pp. 573–607 ). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  71. Hays, D. P. (1983). Bendectin: A case of morning sickness. Drug Intelligence and Clinical Pharmacy, 17, 826–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Heinonen, O. P., Slone, D., Monson, R. R., Hook, E. B., & Shapiro, S. (1977). Cardiovascular birth defects and antenatal exposure to female sex hormones. The New England Journal of Medicine, 296, 67–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Henderson, J. B. (1982). An economic appraisal of the benefits of screening for open spina bifida. Social Science Medicine, 16, 545–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Hill, R. M., Craig, J. P., Chaney, M. D., Tennyson, L. M., & McCulley, L. B. (1977). Utilization of over- the-counter drugs during pregnancy. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 20, 381–394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Hingson, R., Alpert, J. J., Day, N., Dooling, E., Kayne, H., Morlock, S., Oppenheimer, E., & Zuckerman, B. (1982). Effects of maternal drinking and marijuana use on fetal growth and development. Pediatrics, 70, 539–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Hollenbeck, A. N., Gewirtz, J. I., Sebris, S. L., & Scanlon, J. W. (1984). Labor and delivery medication influences parent-infant interaction in the first post-partum month. Infant Behavior and Development, 1, 201–209.Google Scholar
  77. Hunt, J. V., & Rhodes, L. (1977). Mental development of preterm infants during the first year. Child Development, 48, 204–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Jacobson, M. (1978). Differentiation, growth and maturation of neurons. Developmental Neurobiology, 4, 115–218.Google Scholar
  79. Janerich, D. T., Piper, J. M., & Glebatis, D. M. (1974). Oral contraceptives and congenital limb-reduction defects. New England Journal of Medicine, 291, 697–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Jeffcoate, J. A., Humphrey, M. E., & Lloyd, J. K. (1979). Role perception and response to stress in fathers and mothers following pre-term delivery. Social Science and Medicine, 13A, 139–145.Google Scholar
  81. Johnson, H. L., Diano, A., & Rosen, T. S. (1984). 24-month neurobehavioral follow-up of children of methadone- maintained mothers. Infant Behavior and Development, 7, 115–123.Google Scholar
  82. Jones, E. T., & Hensinger, R. N. (1981). Congenital deformities of the spine. In Neonatal Orthopedics (pp. 127–186 ). New York: Grune and Stratton.Google Scholar
  83. Jones, K. L., & Smith, D. W. (1973). Recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome in early infancy. The Lancet, 2, 999–1001.Google Scholar
  84. Jones, K. L., Smith, D. W., Streissguth, A. P., & Myrianthopoulos, N. C. (1974). Outcome in offspring of chronic alcoholic women. The Lancet, 1, 1076–1078.Google Scholar
  85. Kagan, J. (1979). Overview: Perspectives on human infancy. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook on infant development (pp. 1–29 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  86. Kelly, T., Mathews, K. A., & O’Conor, M. (1984). Smoking in pregnancy: Effects on mother and fetus. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 91, 111–117.Google Scholar
  87. Kileff, M. E., James, F. M., Dewan, D. M., & Floyd, H. M. (1984). Neonatal neurobehavioral responses after epidural anesthesia for cesarean section using lidocaine and bupivacaine. Anesthesia and Analgesia, 63, 413–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Klaus, M., & Fanaroff, A. (1979). Care of high-risk neonate. Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  89. Klaus, M., & Fanaroff, A. (1976). Bach, Beethoven, or rock—how much? Journal of Pediatrics, 88, 300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Klaus, M., & Kennell, J. (1970). Mothers separated from their newborn infants. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 17, 1015–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Klaus, M., & Kennell, J. (1982). Interventions in the premature nursery: Impact on development Pediatric Clinics of North America, 29, 1263–1273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Klein, M., & Stern, L. (1971). Low birth weight and the battered child syndrome. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 122, 15–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Kline, J., Stein, Z., Shrout, P., Susser, M., & Warburton, D. (1980). Drinking during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion. The Lancet, 2, 176–180.Google Scholar
  94. Klitsch, M. (1983). Mercy or murder? Ethical dilemmas in newborn care. Family Planning Perspectives, 15, 143–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Kurpas, K., Holmberg, P. C., Kuosma, E., & Saxen, L. (1983). Coffee consumption during pregnancy and selected congenital malformations: A nationwide case-control study. American Journal of Public Health, 73, 1397–1399.Google Scholar
  96. LaBarba, R. C. (1981). Foundations of developmental psychology. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  97. Lavin, J. P., Jr., Lovelace, D. R., Miodovnik, M., Knowles, H. C., & Banden, T. P. (1983). Clinical experience with one hundred seven diabetic pregnancies. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 47, 742–752.Google Scholar
  98. Lester, B. M., Als, H., & Brazelton, T. B. (1982). Regional obstetric anesthesia and newborn behavior: A reanalysis toward synergistic effects. Child Development, 53, 687–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. LeVine, R. A. (1970). Cross cultural study in child psychology. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Carmichae’s manual of child psychology (pp. 559–612 ). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  100. Levinson, G., & Shnider, S. M. (1979). Systemic medication for labor and delivery. In S. M. Shnider & G. Levinson (Eds.), Anesthesia for obstetrics (pp. 75–92 ). Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  101. Linn, S., Schoenbaum, S. C., Monson, R. R., Rosher, B., Stubblefield, P. G., & Ryan, K. J. (1982). No association between coffee consumption and adverse outcomes of pregnancy. The New England Journal of Medicine, 306, 141–145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Linn, S., Schoenbaum, S. C., Monson, R. R., Rosner, B., Stubblefield, P. G., & Ryan, K. J. (1983). Lack of association between contraceptive usage and congenital malformations in offspring. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 147, 923–928.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Lipson, J. G. (1984). Repeat cesarean births. Social and psychological issues. Journal of Gynecological Nursing, 13, 157–162.Google Scholar
  104. Lipton, M. (1976). Early experience and plasticity in the central nervous system. In T. Tjosem (Ed.), Intervention strategies for high risk infants and young children (pp. 63–65 ). Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  105. Little, R. E. (1977). Moderate alcohol use during pregnancy and decreased infant birth weight. American Journal of Public Health, 67, 1154–1156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Lourie, R. S. (1981). Primary prevention in infancy. Children Today, 10, 6–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Lubs, M. E. (1973). Racial differences in maternal smoking effects on the newborn infant. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 115, 66–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Maloni, J. A. (1980). The birthing room: Some insights into parents’ experiences. American Journal of Maternal and Child Nursing, 5, 314–319.Google Scholar
  109. Mangan, C. E., Borow, L., Burtnett-Rubin, M. M., Egan, V., Giuntoli, R. L., & Mikuta, J. J. (1982). Pregnancy outcome in 98 women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero, their mothers, and unexposed siblings. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 59, 315–319.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Mangurten, H. H., & Benawra, R. (1980). Neonatal codeine withdrawal in infants of nonaddicted mothers. Pediatrics, 65, 159–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Marbury, M. C., Linn, S., Monson, R., Schoenbaum, S., Stubblefield, P. G., & Ryan, K. J. (1983). The association of alcohol consumption with outcome of pregnancy. American Journal of Public Health, 73, 1165–1168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Martin, J. C. (1982). An overview: Maternal nicotine and caffeine consumption and offspring outcome. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology, 4, 421–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Martin, D. H., Koutsky, L., Eschenbach, D. A., Daling, J. R., Alexander, E. R., Benedetti, J. K., & Holmes, K. K. (1982). Prematurity and perinatal mortality in pregnancies complicated by maternal chlamydia trachomatis infections. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 247, 1585–1588.Google Scholar
  114. Marut, J. S., & Mercer, R. T. (1979). Comparison of primaparas’ perceptions of vaginal and cesarean births. Nursing Research, 28, 260–266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Masterpasqua, F. (1982). The effectiveness of childbirth education as an early intervention program. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 33, 56–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Mazzi, E. (1977). Possible neonatal diazepam withdrawal: A case report. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 129, 586–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. McCluskey, K., & Arco, C. (1979). Stimulation and infant development. In J. G. Howells (Ed.), Modern perspectives on the psychiatry of infancy (pp. 45–73 ). New York: Bruner/Maze.Google Scholar
  118. McGraw, M. (1939). Later development of children specially trained during infancy. Child Development, 10, 1–19.Google Scholar
  119. McLaughlin, J., & Shurtleff, D. (1979). Management of the newborn with myelodysplasia. Clinical Pediatrics, 18, 463–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. McLearn, G. E. (1964). Genetics and behavior development. In I. M. L. Hoffman & L. W. Hoffman (Eds.), Review of child development research (pp. 433–480 ). Chicago, IL: Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  121. Merkatz, I., & Fanaroff, A. (1979). Antenatal and intrapartum care of the high risk infant. In M. Klaus, & A. Fanaroff (Eds.), Care of the high risk neonate (pp. 1–23 ). Philadelphia, PA: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  122. Meyer, M. B., Jonas, B. S., & Tonascia, J. A. (1976). Perinatal events associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology, 103, 464–476.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Miller, E., Hare, J. W., Cloherty, J. P., Dunn, P. J., Gleason, R. E., Soeldner, J. S., & Kitzmiller, J. L. (1981) Elevated maternal hemoglobin A lc in early pregnancy and major congenital anomalies in infants of diabetic mothers. The New England Journal of Medicine, 304, 1331–1334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Miller, J. M., Jr. (1983). A reappraisal of “tight control” in diabetic pregnancies. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 147, 158–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Mills, J. L., Baker, L., & Goldman, A. S. (1979). Malformations in infants of diabetic mothers occur before the seventh gestational week. Diabetes, 28, 292–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Montague, M. F. A. (1962). Prenatal influences. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  127. Moore, K. L. (1982). Malformations caused by genetic factors. In The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (3rd ed., pp. 140–166 ). Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  128. Morelock, S.,Hingson, R.,Kayne, H.,Dooling, E.,Zuckerman, B.,Day, N.,Alpert, J. J.,& Flowerdew, G. (1982) Bendectin and fetal development. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 142, 209–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Morris, M. B., & Weinstein, L. (1981). Caffeine and the fetus: Is trouble brewing? American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 140, 607–610.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Morrissy, R. T. (1978). Spina bifida: A new rehabilitation problem. Orthopedic Clinics of North America, 9, 379–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Murphy, A., & Pueschel, S. M. (1975). Early intervention with families of newborns with Down’s Syndrome. Maternal Child Nursing Journal, 4, 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Murray, A. D., Dolby, R. M., Nation, R. L., & Thomas, D. B. (1981). Effects of epidural anesthesia on newborns and their mothers. Child Development, 52, 71–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Myers, B. J. (1982). Early intervention using Brazelton training with middle-class mothers and fathers of newborns. Child Development, 52, 462–471.Google Scholar
  134. Myers, G. J. (1984). Myelomeningocele: The medical aspects. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 31, 165–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Nance, S., & Timmons, S. (1982). Premature babies: Handbook for parents. New York: Arbor House.Google Scholar
  136. Nelson, N. M., Enkin, M. W., Saigal, S., Bennett, R. J., Milner, R., & Sackett, D. L. (1980). A randomized clinical trial of the Leboyer approach to childbirth. New England Journal of Medicine, 302, 655–660.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Nelson, W. E., Vaughan, V. C., McKay, R. J., & Behrman, R. E. (1979). Nelson textbook of pediatrics. Philadelphia, PA: H. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  138. Newton, R. W., Webster, P. A. C., Binu, P. S., Maskrey, N., & Phillips, A. B. (1979). Psychosocial stress in pregnancy and its relation to the onset of premature labour. British Medical Journal, 2 (6186), 411–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Nguyen, D. (1984). Gonorrhea in pregnancy and in the newborn. American Family Physician, 29, 185–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Niswander, K. R. (1976). Obstetrics. Essentials of clinical practice. Boston, MA: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  141. North, A. F. (1974). Screening in child health care: Where are we now and where are we going? Journal of Pediatrics, 54, 631–639.Google Scholar
  142. O’Rourke, K. D. (1983). Lessons from the Infant Doe Case. Connecticut Medicine, 47, 411–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Osborne, N. G., & Pratson, L. (1984). Sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 13, 9–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Overton, W. F. (1974). On the assumptive base of the nature-nurture controversy. Additive versus interactive conceptions. Human Development, 16, 74–89.Google Scholar
  145. Parke, R. D., O’Leary, S. E., & West, S. (1972). Mother-father-newborn interaction: Effects of maternal medication labor and sex of infant. Proceedings of the 80th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 7, 85–86.Google Scholar
  146. Pearse, W. H. (1982). Trends in out-of-hospital births. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 60, 267–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Pearse, W. H. (1979). Home birth. Journal of the American Medical Association, 241, 1039–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Pedersen, F. A., Zaslow, M. J., Cain, R. L., & Anderson, B. J. ( 1980, April). Cesarean childbirth: The importance of a family perspective. Paper presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  149. Perry, L. B. (1983). Current concepts of obstetric anesthesia and analgesia. Primary Care, 10, 269–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Pirani, B. B. K., & MacGillivray, I. (1978). Smoking during pregnancy: Its effect on maternal metabolism and fetoplacental function. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 52, 257–263.Google Scholar
  151. Reese, H., & Overton, W. (1980). Models, methods and ethics of intervention. In R. R. Turner & H. W. Reese (Eds). Life-span developmental psychology: Intervention(pp. 30–45 ). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  152. Robboy, S. J., Kaufman, R. H., Prat, J., Welch, W. R., Gaffey, T., Scully, R. E., Richart, R., Fenoglio, C. M., Virati, R., & Tilley, B.C. (1979). Pathologic findings in young women enrolled in the National Cooperative Diethylstilbestrol Adenosis (DESAO) Project. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 53, 309–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Rosenberg, L., Mitchell, A. A., Shapiro, S., & Slone, D. (1982). Selected birth defects in relation to caffeine- containing beverages. Journal of the American Medical Association, 247, 1429–1432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Savolainen, E., Saksela, E., & Saxen, L. (1981). Teratogenic hazards of oral contraceptives analyzed in a national malformation register. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 140, 521–524.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Scarr-Salapatek, S. (1975). Genetics and the development of intelligence. In F. D. Horowitz (Ed.), Review of child development research (pp. 1–57 ). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  156. Shnider, S. M., & Levinson, G. (1979). Anesthesia for obstetrics. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  157. Skeels, H., & Dye, H. (1939). A study of the effects of differential stimulation of mentally retarded children. Procedures Address of American Association of Mental Deficiency, 44, 114–136.Google Scholar
  158. Soboloff, H. R. (1981). Early intervention: Fact or fiction? Developmental Medical Child Neurology, 23, 261–266.Google Scholar
  159. Soler, N. G., Walsh, C. H., & Malins, J. M. (1976). Congenital malformations in infants of diabetic mothers. Quarterly Journal of Medicine, 45, 303–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Sorce, J. F., & Emde, R. N. (1982). The meaning of infant emotional expressions: Regularities in caregiving responses in normal and Down’s Syndrome infants. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 23, 145 - 158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. Sosa, R., Kennell, J., Klaus, M., Robertson, S., & Urrutia, J. (1980). The effect of a supportive companion on perinatal problems, length of labor, and mother-infant interaction. New England Journal of Medicine, 303, 597–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Staisey, N. L., & Fried, P. A. (1983). Relationships between moderate maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and infant neurological development. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 44, 262–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Steele, B. (1976). Psychodynamic factors in child abuse. In C. H. Kempe & R. E. Hefler (Eds.), The Battered Child (pp. 49–86 ). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  164. Strauss, A. A., Modanlou, H. D., & Bosu, S. K. (1981). Neonatal manifestations of maternal Phencyclidine (PCP) abuse. Pediatrics, 68, 550–552.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Strauss, M. E., Lessen-Firestone, J. K., Starr, R. H., Jr., & Ostrea, E. M. (1975). Behavior of narcotics- addicted newborns. Child Development, 46, 887–893.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Telzrow, R. W. (1978). Anticipatory guidance in pediatric practice. Journal of Continuing Education in Pediatrics, 20, 14–27.Google Scholar
  167. Tennes, K., & Blackard, C. (1980). Maternal alcohol consumption, birth weight, and minor physical anomalies. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 138, 774–780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Thomson, W. (1982). Aspects of preventive medicine. Public Health, 26, 221–224.Google Scholar
  169. Tilden, V. P., & Lipson, J. G. (1981). Caesarean childbirth. Variables affecting psychological impact. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 3, 127–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. Tsang, R. C., Ballard, J., & Braun, C. (1981). The infant of the diabetic mother: Today and tomorrow. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 24, 125–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Vietze, P. M., MacTurk, R. H., McCarthy, M. E., Klein, R. P., & Yarrow, L. J. ( 1980, April). Impact of mode of delivery on father- and mother-infant interaction at 6 and 12 months. Paper presented at the International Conference on Infant Studies, New Haven, CT.Google Scholar
  172. Weathersbee, P. S., Olsen, L. K., & Lodge, J. R. (1977). Caffeine and pregnancy: A retrospective study. Postgraduate Medicine, 62, 64–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Whitley, R. J., Yeager, A., Kartus, P., Bryson, Y., Connor, J. D., Alford, C. A., Nahmais, A., & Soong, S. J. (1983). Neonatal Herpes Simplex virus infection: Follow-up evaluation of vidarabine therapy. Pediatrics, 72, 778–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Whitt, T., & Casey, P. (1982). The mother-infant relationship and infant development: The effect of pediatric intervention. Child Development, 53, 948–956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Widmayer, S. M., & Field, T. M. (1980). Effects of Brazelton demonstrations on early interactions of preterm infants and their teenage mothers. Infant Behavior and Development, 3, 79–89.Google Scholar
  176. Wingerd, J., & Schoen, E. J. (1974). Factors in influencing length at birth and height at five years. Pediatrics, 53, 737–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kathleen A. McCluskey-Fawcett
    • 1
  • Nancy Meck
    • 2
  • Marybeth Harris
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Psychology, Children’s Rehabilitation UnitUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA

Personalised recommendations