Movement Disorders and Neuroleptic Medication

  • Thomas R. E. Barnes
  • Malcolm P. I. Weller


Skilled voluntary movements involving fine adjustments are initiated by the large pyramidal-shaped Betz cells in the motor cortex. The decussating pathway receives contributions from the cerebellum and the complex extrapyramidal system. The term “extrapyramidal system” originally referred to an anatomical concept although more recently it has been considered a functional unit. Within this system attention has been focused on the basal ganglia, and, specifically, the dopaminergic nigrostriatal system, as being important in motor planning (Marsden, 1980). Figure 1 illustrates, diagrammatically, the postulated interaction among dopaminergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system (Kebabian and Calne, 1979; Marsden and Jenner, 1980). For a more elaborate representation of the neurotransmitter systems in this area, see Hornykiewicz (1981).


Movement Disorder Dopamine Receptor Antipsychotic Drug Tardive Dyskinesia Nigrostriatal System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, R. D., and Victor, M., 1977, Principles of Neurology, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Ambani, L. M., Van Woert, M. H., and Bowers, M. B., 1973, Physostigmine effects on phenothiazine-induced extrapyramidal reactions, Arch. Neurol. 29: 444–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. American College of Neuropsychopharmacology—Food and Drug Administration Task Force, 1973, Neurologic syndromes associated with antipsychotic-drug use. N. Engl. J. Med. 289: 20–23.Google Scholar
  4. Anden, N. E., and Bedard, P., 1971, Influence of cholinergic mechanisms on the function and turnover of brain dopamine, J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 23: 460–462.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ayd, F., 1961, A survey of drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, JAMA 175: 1054–1060.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey, E. V., and Stone, T. W., 1975, The mechanism of action of amantadine in parkinsonism: A review, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyna. Thera. 216: 246–262.Google Scholar
  7. Baldessarini, R. J., 1979, The “neuroleptic” antipsychotic drugs, 2. Neurologic side-effects, Post-grad. Med. 65: 123–128.Google Scholar
  8. Bannon, M. J., Reinhardt, J. R., Jr., Bunney, E. B., and Roth, R. H., 1982, Unique response to antipsychotic drugs is due to absence of terminal autoreceptors in mesocortical dopamine neurones, Nature 296: 444–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Barbeau, A., 1962, The pathogenesis of Parkinson’s diseases. A new hypothesis, Can. Med. J. 87: 802–807.Google Scholar
  10. Barnes, T. R. E., 1984, Rating tardive dyskinesia, Br. J. Psychiatry 145: 338.Google Scholar
  11. Barnes, T. R. E., and Kidger, T., 1979, Tardive dyskinesia and problems of assessment, in: Current Themes in Psychiatry, Vol. 2 ( R. N. Gaind and B. L. Hudson, eds.), pp. 145–162, Macmillan, London.Google Scholar
  12. Barnes, T. R. E., and Trauer, T., 1982, Reliability and validity of a tardive dyskinesia videotape rating technique, Br. J. Psychiatry 140: 508–515.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Barnes, T. R. E., Braude, W. M., and Hill, D. J., 1982. Acute akathisia after oral droperidol and metoclopramide preoperative medication, Lancet 2: 48–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Barnes, T. R. E., Kidger, T., and Gore, S. M., 1983a, Tardive dyskinesia: A 3-year follow-up, Psychol. Med. 13: 71–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Barnes, T. R. E., Rossor, M., and Trauer, T., 1983b, A comparison of purposeless movements in psychiatric patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, and normal individuals, J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 46: 540–546.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bobruff, A., Gardos, G., Tarsy, D., Rapkin, R. M., Cole, J. O., and Moore, P., 1981, Clonazepam and phenobarbital in tardive dyskinesia, Am. J. Psychiatry 138: 189–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brandon, S., McClelland, H. A., and Protheroe, C., 1971, A study of facial dyskinesia in a mental hospital population, Br. J. Psychiatry 118: 171–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Braude, W. M., and Barnes, T. R. E., 1983, Late-onset akathisia: An indicant of covert dyskinesia Am. J. Psychiatry 140: 611–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Braude, W. M., Barnes, T. R. E., and Gore, S. M., 1983, Clinical characteristics of akathisia: A systematic investigation of acute psychiatric inpatient admissions, Br. J. Psychiatry 143: 139–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Burke, R. E., Fahn, S., Jankovic, J., Marsden, C. D., Lang, A. E., Gollom, P. S., and Ilson, J., 1982, Tardive dustonia and inappropriate use of neurolaptic drugs, Lancet 1: 1299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Burt, D. R., Creese, 1., and Snyder, S. H., 1976, Properties of 3H haloperidol and 3H dopamine binding associated with dopamine receptors in calf brain membranes, Mol. Pharmacol. 12: 800–812.Google Scholar
  22. Caine, D. B., 1981, Dopamine receptors in movement disorders, in: Movement Disorders ( C. D. Marsden and S. Fahn, eds.), pp. 41–58, Butterworth Scientific, London.Google Scholar
  23. Carlsson, A., 1970, Biochemical implications of dopa-induced action on the central nervous system with particular reference to abnormal movements, in: L-Dopa and Parkinsonism ( A. Barbeau and F. H. McDowell, eds.), pp. 205–212, F. A. Davis, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  24. Carman, J. S., 1972, Methylphenidate in akathisia, Lancet 2: 1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Carp, J. S., and Anderson, R. J., 1982, Dopamine receptor-mediated depression of spinal mono-synaptic transmission, Brain Res. 242: 247–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Carter, C. J., and Pycock, C. J., 1980, Behavioural and biochemical effects of dopamine and noradrenaline depletion within the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat, Brain Res. 192: 163–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Casey, D. E., and Denney, 1977, Pharmacological characterization of tardive dyskinesia, Psycho-pharmacology 54: 1–8.Google Scholar
  28. Casey, D. E., and Hammerstad, J. P., 1979, Sodium valproate in tardive dyskinesia, J. Clin. Psychiatry 40: 483–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Chouinard, G., Annable, L., Ross-Chouinard, A., and Nesteros, J. N., 1979, Factors related to tardive dyskinesia, Am. J. Psychiatry 136: 79–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Christensen, A. V., 1973, Acute and delayed effects of a single dose of a neuroleptic drug, Acta Physiol. Scand. 396: 78.Google Scholar
  31. Clow, A., Jenner, P., Theodorou, A., and Marsden, C. D., 1979, Striatal dopamine receptors become supersensitive while rats are given trifluoperazine for six months, Nature 278: 59–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Clow, A., Theodorou, A., Jenner, P., and Marsden, C. D., 1980a, Changes in rat striatal dopamine turnover and receptor activity during one year’s neuroleptic administration, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 63: 135–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Clow, A., Theodorou, A., Jenner, P., and Marsden, C. D., 1980b, Cerebral dopamine function in rats following withdrawal from one year of continuous neuroleptic administration, Eur. J. Pharmacol. 63: 145–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Coleman, J. H., and Hayes, P. E., 1975, Drug-induced extrapyramidal effects—A review, Dis. Nerv. Syst. 36: 591–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Cools, A. R., 1977, Two functionally and pharmacologically distinct dopamine receptors in the rat brain, in: Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 16 ( E. Costa and G. L. Gessa, eds.), pp. 215–225, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  36. Costall, B., and Naylor, R. J., 1978, The relationship between extrapyramidal and mesolimbic GABA and acetylcholine in the mediation of neuroleptic activity. Paper presented at Ilnd World Congress of Biological Psychiatry, Barcelona, Abstract no. 452.Google Scholar
  37. Crane, G. E., 1973, Persistent dyskinesia, Br. J. Psychiatry 122: 395–405.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Crane, G. E., Naranjo, E. R., and Chase, C., 1971, Motor disorders induced by neuroleptics—A proposed new classification, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 24: 179–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Creese, I., 1982, Dopamine receptors explained, Trends Neurosci. 5: 40–43.Google Scholar
  40. Degkwitz, R., 1968, Extrapyramidal motor disorders following long-term treatment with neuroleptic drugs, in: Psychotropic Drugs and Dysfunctions of the Basal Ganglia G. E. Crane, and R. Gardner, Jr., eds.), pp. 22–32, Washington, US Public Health Service Publications.Google Scholar
  41. Delay, J., and Deniker, P., 1968, Drug-induced extrapyramidal extrapyramidal syndromes, in: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 6 ( P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn, eds.), pp. 248–266, North Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  42. DiMascio, A., and Demirgian, E., 1970, Antiparkinsonian drug overuse, Psychosomatics 11: 596–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. DiMascio, A., Bernardo, D. L., Greenblatt, D. J., and Marder, J. E., 1976, A controlled trial of amantadine in drug-induced extrapyramidal disorder, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 33: 599–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Director, K. L., and Muniz, C. E., 1982, Diazepam in the treatment of extrapyramidal symptoms: A case report, J. Clin. Psychiatry 43: 160–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Donlon, P. T., 1973, The therapeutic use of diazepam for akathisia, Psychosomatics 14: 222–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Dupelj, M., and Geber, J., 1981, Dopamine as a possible neurotransmitter in the spinal cord, Neuropharmacol. 20: 145–148.Google Scholar
  47. Ehringer, H., and Hornykiewicz, O., 1960, Verteilung von Noradrenalin und Dopamin (3-Hydroxytyramin) im Gehirn des Menschen und ihr Verhalten bei Erkrankungen des Extrapyramidalen Systems, KIM. Wochenschr. 38: 1238–1239.Google Scholar
  48. Fahn, S., 1978, Tardive dyskinesia may only be akathisia, N. Engl. J. Med. 299: 202–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Fann, W. E., Lake, C. R., and McKenzie, G. M., 1974, Adrenergic and cholinergic factors in extrapyramidal disorders, Psychopharmacol. Bull. 10: 52–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Gagrat, D., Hamilton, J., and Belmaker, R. H., 1978, Intravenous diazepam in the treatment of neuroleptic acute dystonias and akathisia, Am J. Psychiatry 135: 1232–1233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gale, K., 1980, Chronic blockade of dopamine receptors by antischizophrenic drugs enhances GABA binding in substantia nigra, Nature 283: 569–570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gardos, G., Cole, J. O., and Sniffin, C., 1976, An evaluation of papaverine in tardive dyskinesia, J. Clin. Pharmacol. 16: 304–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Gardos, G., Cole, J. O., and La Brie, R., 1977, The assessment of tardive dyskinesia, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 34: 1206–1212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gardos, G., Cole, J. O., and Tarsy, D., 1978, Withdrawal syndromes associated with antipsychotic drugs, Am. J. Psychiatry 135: 1321–1324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Garver, D. L., Davis, J. M., Dekirmenjian, H., Jones, F. D., Casper, R., and Haraszti, J., 1976, Pharmacokinetics of red blood cell phenothiazine and clinical effects, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 33: 862–866.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Gerlach, J., 1979, Tardive dyskinesia, Dan. Med. Bull. 26: 209–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Glick, S. D., Jerussi, T. P., Cox, R. D., and Fleischer, L. N., 1977, Pre-and post-synaptic actions of apormorphine: Differentiation by rotatory effects in normal rats, Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 225: 303–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Goetz, C. G., Dysken, M. W., and Klawans, H. L., 1980, Assessment and treatment of drug-induced tremor, J. Clin. Psychiatry 41: 310–315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Granacher, R. P., 1981, Differential diagnosis of tardive dyskinesia: An overview, Am. J. Psychiatry 138: 1288–1297.Google Scholar
  60. Greenblatt, D. J., DiMascio, A., Harmatz, J. S., Bernardo, D. L., and Marder, J. E., 1977, Pharmacokinetics and clinical effects of amantadine in drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms, J. Clin. Pharmacol. 17: 704–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Hassler, R., Ahn, E. T., Wagner, A., and Kim, J. S., 1978, Experimenteller Nachweis von intrastriatelen Synapsentypen und Axon-Kollateralen durch Isoliepung des Fundus striati von alien extrastriatelen Verbingungen, Anat. Anz. 143: 413–436.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Hershey, L. A., Gift, T., and Rivera-Calimlin, L., 1982, Not Parkinson’s disease, Lancet 2:49 (letter).Google Scholar
  63. Hershon, H. I., Kennedy, P. F., and McGuire, R. J., 1972, Persistence of extra-pyramidal disorders and psychiatric relapse after withdrawal of long-term phenothiazine therapy, Br. J. Psychiatry 120: 41–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Hollister, L. E., 1978, Clinical Pharmacology of Psychotherapeutic Drugs, Churchill Livingstone, New York.Google Scholar
  65. Hornykiewicz, 0., 1981, Brain neurotransmitter changes in Parkinson’s disease, in: Movement Disorders ( C. D. Marsden and S. Fahn. eds.), pp. 41–58, Butterworth, London.Google Scholar
  66. Iversen, L. L., 1978, More than one type of dopamine receptor in the brain, Trends Neurosci. 1: 5–6.Google Scholar
  67. Iversen, S. D., 1971, The effect of surgical lesions to frontal cortex and substantia nigra on amphetamine responses in rats, Brain Res. 31: 295–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Janowsky, D. S., Davis, J. M., El-Yousef, M. K., and Sekerke, H. J., 1972, A cholinergic-adrenergic hypothesis of mania and depression, Lancet 2: 632–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Jellinger, K., 1977, Neuropathologie findings after neuroleptic long-term therapy, in: Neurotoxicology ( L. Roizin, H. Shiraki, and N. Gréevie, eds.), pp. 25–42, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  70. Jeste, D. V., and Wyatt, R. J., 1982, Therapeutic strategies against tardive dyskinesia: Two decades of experience, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 39: 803–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Jeste, D. V., Potkin, S. G., Sinha, S., Feder, S., and Wyatt, R. J., 1979, Tardive dyskinesia reversible and persistent, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 36: 585–590.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Johnson, D. A. W., 1978, Prevalence and treatment of drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms, Br. J. Psychiatry 132: 27–30.Google Scholar
  73. Jungmann, E., and Schöffling, K., 1982, Akathisia and metoclopramide, Lancet 2:221 (letter).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Jus, A., Pineau, R., La Chance, R., Pelchat, G., Jus, K., Pires, P., and Villeneuve, R., 1976, Epidemiology of tardive dyskinesia, Parts I and II, Dis. Nerv. Syst. 37:210–214, 257–261.Google Scholar
  75. Jus, A., Gautier, J., Villeneuve, A., Jus, K., Pires, P., and Gagnon-Binette, M., 1977, Chronology of combined neuroleptics and antiparkinsonian administration, Am. J. Psychiatry 134: 1157.Google Scholar
  76. Kane, J. M., and Smith, J. M., 1982, Tardive dyskinesia: Prevalence and risk factors 1959 to 1979, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 39: 473–481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Kazamatsuri, H., Chien, C-P., and Cole, J. O., 1972, Therapeutic approaches to tardive dyskinesia: A review of the literature, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 27: 491–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kebabian, J. W., and Caine, D. B., 1979, Multiple receptors for dopamine, Nature 277: 93–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Kekich, W. A., 1978, Neuroleptics: Violence as a manifestation of akathisia, JAMA 240: 2185.Google Scholar
  80. Kelly, J. T., and Abuzzahab, Sr., F. S., 1971, The antiparkinson properties of amantadine in druginduced parkinsonism, J. Clin. Pharmacol. 11: 211–214.Google Scholar
  81. Kennedy, P. F., Hershon, H. I., and McGuire, R. J., 1971, Extrapyramidal disorders after prolonged phenothiazine therapy, Br. J. Psychiatry 118: 509–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Kidger, T., Barnes, T. R. E., Trauer, T., and Taylor, P. J., 1980, Sub-syndromes of tardive dyskinesia, Psycho!. Med. 10: 513–520.Google Scholar
  83. Klawans, H. L., Jr., 1973, The pharmacology of tardive dyskinesia, Am. J. Psychiatry 130: 82–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Knights, A., Okasha, M. S., Salih, M. A., and Hirsch, S. R., 1979, Depressive and extrapramidal symptoms and clinical effects: A trial of fluphenazine versus flupenthixol in maintenance of schizophrenic out-patients, Br. J. Psychiatry 135: 515–523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Koob, G. F., Stinus, L., and Le Moal, M., 1981, Hyperactivity and hypoactivity produced by lesions to the mesolimbic dopamine system, Behay. Brain Res. 3: 341–359.Google Scholar
  86. Kumar, B. B., 1979, An unusual case of akathisia, Am. J. Psychiatry 136: 1088.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lipinski, J. F., Zubenko, G. S., Cohen, B. M., and Barreira, P. J., 1984, Propranolol in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced akathisia, Am. J. Psychiatry 141: 412–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Loga, S., Curry, S., and Lader, M., 1975, Interactions of orphenadrine and phenobarbitone with chlorpromazine: Plasma concentrations and effects in man, Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 2: 197–208.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Mackay, A. V., 1981, Assessment of anti-psychotic drugs, Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 11: 225–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Mackay, A. V. P., and Sheppard, G. P., 1979, Pharmacotherapeutic trials in tradive dyskinesia, Br. J. Psychiatry 135: 489–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Marco, E., Mao, C. C., Cheney, D. L., Revuelta, A., and Costa, E., 1976, The effects of anti-psychotics on the turnover rate of GABA and acetylcholine in rat brain nuclei, Nature 264: 363–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Marsden, C. D., 1980, The enigma of the basal ganglia and movement, Trends Neurosci. 3: 284–287.Google Scholar
  93. Marsden, C. D., and Jenner, P., 1980, The pathophysiology of extrapyramidal side-effects of neuroleptic drugs, Psycho!. Med. 10: 55–72.Google Scholar
  94. Marsden, C. D., Tarsy, D., and Baldessarini, R. J., 1975, Spontaneous and drug-induced movement disorders in psychotic patients, in: Psychiatric Aspects of Neurological Disease ( D. F. Benson, and D. Blumer, eds.), pp. 219–265, Grune and Stratton, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Martin, I. C. A., and Townsend, R. A., 1974, Implications of sustained released phenothiazines: A study of fluphenazine decanoate, Br. J. Psychiatry 124: 173–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. McClelland, H. A., 1976, Discussion on assessment of drug-induced extrapyramidal reactions, Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 3: 401–403.Google Scholar
  97. McClelland, H. A., Blessed, G., Bhate, S., Ali, N., and Clarke, P. A., 1974. The abrupt withdrawal of antiparkinsonian drugs in schizophrenic atients, Br. J. Psychiatry 124: 151–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Miller, R. J., and Hiley, C. R., 1974, Anti-muscarinic properties of neuroleptics and drug-induced parkinsonism, Nature 248: 596–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ondrusek, M. G., Kilts, C. D., Frye, G. D., Mailman, R. B., Mueller, R. A., and Breese, G. R., 1981, Behavioral and biochemical studies of the scopolamine-induced reversal of neuroleptic activity, Psychopharmacology 73: 17–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Orlov, P., Kasparian, G., DiMascio, A., and Cole, J. 0., 1971, Withdrawal of antiparkinsonian drugs, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 25: 410–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Poirier, L. J., Filion, M., Larochelle, L., and Péchadre, J. C., 1975, Physiopathology of experimental parkinsonism in the monkey, Can. J. Neurol. Sci. 2: 255–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Pycock, C. J., Kerwin, R. W., and Carter, C. J., 1980a, Effect of lesion of coritcal dopamine terminals on subcortical dopamine receptors in rats, Nature 286: 74–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Pycock, C. J., Carter, C. J., and Kerwin, R. W., 1980b, Effect of 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex on neurotransmitter systems in subcortical sites in the rat, J. Neurochem. 34: 91–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Quitkin, F., Rifkin, A., Gochfeld, L., and Klein, D. F., 1977, Tardive dyskinesia: Are first signs reversible? Am. J. Psychiatry 134: 84–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Raleigh, F. R., Jr., 1977, Reducing unnecessary antiparkinsonian medication in antipsychotic therapy, J. Am. Pharmaceut. Assoc. 17: 101–106.Google Scholar
  106. Raskin, D. E., 1972, Akathisia: A side-effect to be remembered, Am. J. Psychiatry 129: 345–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Rifkin, A., Quitkin, F., Kane, J., Struve, F., and Klein, D., 1978, Are prophylactic antiparkinsonian drugs necessary? A controlled study of procyclidine withdrawal, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 35: 483–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Rivera-Calimlin, L., Nasrallah, H., Strauss, J., and Lasagna, L., 1976, Clinical response and plasma levels: Effect of dose, dosage schedules, and drug interactions on plasma chlorpromazine levels, Am. J. Psychiatry 133: 646–652.Google Scholar
  109. Rosen, A. M., Mukherjee, S., Olarte, S., Varia, V., and Cardenas, C., 1982, Perception of tardive dyskinesia in outpatients receiving maintenance neuroleptics, Am. J. Psychiatry 139: 372–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Schnell, R. G., 1972, Drug induced dyskinesia treated with intravenous diazepam, J. Fla. Med. Assoc. 59: 22–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Schwab, R. S., and England, A. C., Jr., 1968, Parkinson syndromes due to various specific causes in: Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Diseases of the Basal Ganglia Vol. 6 (P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn, eds.), pp. 227–247, Amsterdam, North Holland.Google Scholar
  112. Schwab, R. S., England, A. C., Jr., Poskanzer, D. G., and Young, R. R., 1969, Amantadine in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, JAMA 208: 1168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Schwarcz, R., Creese, I., Coyle, J. T., and Synder, S. H., 1978, Dopamine receptors localised on cerebral cortical afferents to rat corpus stratum, Nature 271: 766–768.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Seeman, P., 1980, Brain dopamine receptors, Pharmacol. Rev. 32: 229–313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Simpson, G. M., 1970, Long-acting antipsychotic agents and extrapyramidal side effects, Dis. Nerv. Syst. 31: 12–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Simpson, G. M., 1977, Neurotoxicology of major tranquillizers, in: Neurotoxicology Vol. 1 ( L. Roizin, H. Shiraki, and N. Grcevic, eds.), pp. 1–7, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  117. Simpson, G. M., Voitashevsky, A., Young, M. A., and Hillary Lee, J., 1977, Deanol in the treatment of tardive dyskinesia, Psychopharmacology 52: 257–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Smith, J. M., and Baldessarini, R. J., 1980, Changes in prevalence, severity, and recovery in tardive dyskinesia with age, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 37: 1368–1370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Smith, R. C., Crayton, J., Dekirmenjian, H., Klass, D., and Davis, J. M., 1979, Blood levels of neuroleptic drugs in non responding chronic schizophrenic patients, Arch. Gen Psychiatry 36: 579–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Snyder, S. H., 1981, Dopamine receptors, neuroleptics, and schizophrenia, Am J. Psychiatry 138: 460–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Snyder, S., Greenberg, D., and Yamamura, H. I., 1974, Antischizophrenic drugs and brain cholinergic receptors: Affinity for muscarinic sites predicts extrapyramidal effects, Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 31: 58–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Sokoloff, P., Martres, M-P., and Schwartz, J. C., 1980, Three classes of dopamine receptor (D2, D-3, D-4) identified by binding studies with 3H-apomorphine and 3H-domperidone, NaunynSchmiedeberg’s Arch. Pharmacol. 315: 89–102.Google Scholar
  123. Sovner, R., and DiMascio, A., 1978, Extrapyramidal syndromes and other neurological side effects of psychotropic drugs, in: Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress ( M. A. Lipton, A. DiMascio, and K. F. Killiam, eds.), pp. 1021–1032, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  124. Spano, P. F., Memo, M., Govoni, S., and Trabucchi, M., 1980. Similarities and dissimilarities between dopamine and neuroleptic receptors: Further evidence for type 1 and 2 dopamine receptors in the CNS, in: Long-Term Effects of Neuroleptics: Advances in Biochemical Psychopharmacology, Vol. 24 ( F. Cattabeni, G. Racagni, P. F. Spano, and E. Costa, eds.), pp. 113–121, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  125. Swett, C., 1975, Drug-induced dystonia, Am. J. Psychiatry 132: 532–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Tassin, J. P., Stinus, L., Simon, M., Blanc, G., Thierry, A. M., Le Moal, M., Cardo, B., and Glowinski, J., 1978, Relationship between the locomotor hyperactivity induced by A10 lesions and the destruction of the frontocortical dopaminergic innervation in the rat, Brain Res. 141: 267–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Ungerstedt, U., 1971, Postsynaptic supersensitivity after 6-hydroxy-dopamine induced degeneration of the nigro-striatal dopamine system, Acta Physiol. Scand. 367: 69–93.Google Scholar
  128. Van Putten, T., 1974, Why do schizophrenic patients refuse to take their drugs? Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 31: 67–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Van Putten, T., 1975, The many faces of akathisia, Comp. Psychiatry 16: 43–47.Google Scholar
  130. Van Putten, T., 1978, During refusal in schizophrenia: Causes and prescribing hints, Hosp. Commun. Psychiatry 29: 110–112.Google Scholar
  131. Wauquier, A., Niemegeers, C. J. E., and Lal, H., 1975, Differential antagonism by the anticholinergic dexetimide of inhibitory effects of haloperidol and fentanyl on brain self-stimulation, Psychopharmacologia 41: 229–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Weller, M. P. I., 1981, Schizophrenia, neuroleptics and Parkinson’s disease, in: Research Progress in Parkinson’s Disease ( F. Clifford-Rose and R. Capildeo, eds.) pp. 67–71, Pitman Medical, Turnbridge Wells.Google Scholar
  133. Wolfarth, S., 1976, Experimental basis of the therapy of Parkinson’s disease and the cholinergic-dopaminergic equilibrium in basal brain nuclei, Pol. J. Pharmacol. Pharm. 28: 469–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Yahr, M. D., 1981, Introduction in Research Progress in Parkinson’s disease (F. Clifford-Rose, and R. Capildeo, eds.), pp. 3–8, Pitman Medical, Tunbridge Wells.Google Scholar
  135. Young, R. R., and Shahani, B. T., 1979, Pharmacology of tremor, in: Clinical Neuropharmacology, Vol. 4 ( H. L. Klawans, ed.), pp. 139–156, Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas R. E. Barnes
    • 1
  • Malcolm P. I. Weller
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryCharing Cross and Westminster Medical SchoolLondonEngland
  2. 2.Academic Department of Psychiatry, Royal Free Hospital School of MedicineThe Royal Free HospitalLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations