Estrogens and Antiestrogenic Drugs

  • John A. Thomas
  • Edward J. Keenan


The estrogens acting in concert with progesterone are the ovarian hormones responsible for the regulation of female reproductive function. Importantly, the estrogens are required for the development and maintenance of the secondary sexual characteristics and the reproductive tract in females. These actions constitute the basis for the principal clinical uses of the estrogens. It is estimated that approximately 5–10 million women in the United States utilize estrogens in managing the symptoms secondary to the estrogen deficiency of menopause. Likewise, as many as 15–20% of women in their childbearing years employ combinations of estrogens and progestins for fertility control. Thus, the estrogens represent an important class of widely used drugs. However, the use of estrogens requires careful consideration of their pharmacological characteristics and their potential adverse effects.


Estrogen Receptor Corpus Luteum Estrogen Therapy Ethinyl Estradiol Abnormal Uterine Bleeding 
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Physiology of the Estrogens

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Pharmacology of the Estrogens

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Pharmacology of the Antiestrogens

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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • John A. Thomas
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Edward J. Keenan
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
    • 10
  1. 1.Corporate ResearchTravenol Laboratories, Inc.Round LakeUSA
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologyNorthwestern University School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of UrologyNorthwestern University School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyWest Virginia School of MedicineMorgantownUSA
  5. 5.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Illinois School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  6. 6.Department of PharmacologyRush-Presbyterian School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  7. 7.Hormone Receptor Laboratory, School of MedicineThe Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  8. 8.Department of Surgery, School of MedicineThe Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  9. 9.Department of Pharmacology, School of MedicineThe Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  10. 10.Department of Medicine (Medical Oncology), School of MedicineThe Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA

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