Posterior Pituitary Hormones, Oxytocics, and Prostaglandins
The posterior pituitary hormones were the first biologically active peptides to be isolated, to be characterized for their amino acid sequence, and to be subsequently synthesized, by du Vigneaud. However, interest in the biological actions of secretions of the neurohypophysis date back nearly 200 years. Oliver and Schaffer described the pressor effects of pituitary extracts as early 1894. Three years later, Howell tracked these pressor substances of the pituitary gland to the neurohypophysis itself. Shortly after the discovery of the vasopressor actions of these neurohypophyseal extracts, the antidiuretic properties of posterior lobe extracts were described. In 1906, Sir Henry Dale reported that extracts of the posterior pituitary caused a stimulation of uterine smooth muscle. Although an awareness of the differences between diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus was recognized during the late 1700s, it was not until 1913 that injections of posterior pituitary extracts were observed to cause an improvement in the treatment of diabetes insipidus.
KeywordsDiabetes Insipidus Postpartum Bleeding Ergot Alkaloid Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Central Diabetes Insipidus
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
Posterior Pituitary Hormones
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© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986