Insulin and Oral Hypoglycemic Agents

  • John A. Thomas
  • Edward J. Keenan


About 100 years have elapsed since the classic experiments of von Mering and Minkowski demonstrated that pancreatomized dogs exhibited signs and symptoms resembling those seen in diabetes mellitus. The pioneering efforts of Banting and Best revealed that pancreatic extracts could sustain the life of patients suffering from severe diabetes, thereby providing the link between insulin deficiency and the disease. Insulin was subsequently crystallized by Abel and was eventually chemically synthesized in the laboratory. Recently, synthetic insulin derived from recombinant DNA technologies has been approved for clinical trials. Therapy employing animal insulin has been used in the clinical management of diabetes mellitus for many years. Despite the experience with hormone replacement therapies, it is now recognized that diabetes mellitus is a very complex metabolic disorder, and the simple concept that its pathogenesis is due solely to insulin deficiency is no longer tenable. Indeed, contributing to the reduced production of insulin are contributing factors such as excess glucagon, which aggravate both hyperglycemia and ketosis. Insulin resistance, as demonstrated in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) (i. e., type I), is yet another complicating factor and may be due to both a decrease in insulin receptors and a postreceptor defect.


Growth Hormone Insulin Receptor Human Insulin Oral Hypoglycemic Agent Insulin Pump 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • John A. Thomas
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • Edward J. Keenan
    • 7
    • 8
    • 9
    • 10
  1. 1.Corporate ResearchTravenol Laboratories, Inc.Round LakeUSA
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologyNorthwestern University School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Department of UrologyNorthwestern University School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Pharmacology and ToxicologyWest Virginia School of MedicineMorgantownUSA
  5. 5.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Illinois School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  6. 6.Department of PharmacologyRush-Presbyterian School of MedicineChicagoUSA
  7. 7.Hormone Receptor Laboratory, School of MedicineThe Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  8. 8.Department of Surgery, School of MedicineThe Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  9. 9.Department of Pharmacology, School of MedicineThe Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA
  10. 10.Department of Medicine (Medical Oncology), School of MedicineThe Oregon Health Sciences UniversityPortlandUSA

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