Advertisement

Evidences for Molecular Specificities Involved in Molluscan Inflammation

  • Thomas C. Cheng
Part of the Comparative Pathobiology book series (CPATH, volume 8)

Abstract

Cellular inflammatory response to nonself materials is a universal phenomenon in the Animal Kingdom. To refresh our memories, inflammation, as generally defined, is the reaction of tissues to insult. The process is characterized by local heat, swelling, redness, and pain. These characteristics have been defined as a result of observations on vertebrates, particularly mammals. As our knowledge of inflammation as revealed by studying invertebrates, especially molluscs, has progressed, it is becoming increasingly evident that these characteristics need not all be present, especially conspicuous swelling and redness. Also, I would like to advance the idea that nonspecific inflammatory response does not occur in molluscs or any other group of animals. In other words, there is some degree of specificity at the molecular level in all instances of cellular inflammation. The evidences for this statement are presented later. At this point, I wish to review in a conceptual manner the various phenomena which collectively comprise cellular response to insult in molluscs. Specifically, as depicted in Fig. 1, I intend to point out that cellular infiltration and subsequent events in molluscs, as in other groups of animals, involves (1) chemotactic attraction of reaction cells to the insulting agent, (2) surface recognition of self from nonself on the part of reaction cells and attachment of the nonself insulting agent to such cells, (3) endocytosis or encapsulation, and (4) intracelluar events leading to degradation and elimination of the insulting agent. As will become apparent at a later point, the reason for reviewing these phases of cellular reaction to challenge is that in terms of modern cell biology, there appears to be specific recognition sites involved at each phase, hence my thesis that nonspecific inflammatory response per se does not occur.

Keywords

Lysosomal Enzyme Schematic Drawing Lysozyme Activity Crassostrea Virginica Molecular Specificity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson, R. S. and Good, R. A. (1976). Opsonic involvement in phagocytosis by mollusk hemocytes. J. Invert. Pathol., 27, 57–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bang, F. B. (1961). Reaction to injury in the oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Biot,. Bull., 121, 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng, T. C. (1975). Functional morphology and biochemistry of molluscan phagocytes. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 266, 343–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheng, T. C. (1976). Beta-glucuronidase from the serum and cells of Mercenaria mercenaria and Crassostrea virginica (Mollusca: Pelecypoda). J. Invert. Pathol., 27, 125–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cheng, T. C. (1981). Bivalves. In “Invertebrate Blood Cells 1” ( N. A. Ratcliffe and A. F. Rowley, eds.) p. 233–300. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  6. Cheng, T. C. (1983). The role of lysosomes in molluscan inflammation. Am. Zool., 23, 129–144.Google Scholar
  7. Cheng, T. C. (1984). Evolution of receptors. Comp. Pathobiol., 5, 33–50.Google Scholar
  8. Cheng, T. C. and Butler, M. S. (1979). Experimentally induced elevations of acid phosphatase activity in hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca). J. Invert. PathoZ., 34, 119–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheng, T. C. and Howland, K. H. (1979). Chemotactic attraction between hemocytes of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and bacteria. J. Invert. Pathol., 33, 204–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheng, T. C. and Rodrick, G. E. (1974). Identification and characterization of lysozyme from the hemolymph of the soft-shelled clam Mya arenaria. Biol. Bull., 147, 311–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheng, T. C. and Rodrick, G. E. (1975). Lysosomal and other enzymes in the hemolymph of Crassostrea virginica and Mercenaria mercenaria. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., 52B, 443–447.Google Scholar
  12. Cheng, T. C. and Rudo, B. M. (1976). Chemotactic attraction of Crassostrea virginica hemolymph cells to Staphylococcus lactus. J. Invert. Pathol., 27, 137–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cheng, T. C. and Yoshino, T. P. (1976). Lipase activity in the serum and hemolymph cells of the soft-shelled clam, Mya arenaria, during phagocytosis. J. Invert. Pathol., 27, 243–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cheng, T. C. and Yoshino, T. P. (1976). Lipase activity in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca) challenged with bacterial lipids. J. Invert. Pathol., 28, 143–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cheng, T. C., Cali, A., and Foley, D. A. (1974). CellularGoogle Scholar
  16. reactions in marine pelecypods as a factor influencing endosymbiosis. In “Symbiosis in the Sea” (W. B. Vernberg, ed.). p. 61–91. Univ. South Carolina Press, Columbia.Google Scholar
  17. Cheng, T. C., Chorney, M. J., and Yoshino, T. P. (1977). Lysozyme-like activity in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata challenged with bacteria. J. Invert. Pathol., 29, 170–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cheng, T. C., Guida, V. G., and Gerhart, P. L. (1978). Amino-peptidase and lysozyme activity levels and serum protein concentrations in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca) challenged with bacteria. J. Invert. PathoZ., 32, 297–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cheng, T. C., Marchalonis, J. J., and Vasta, G. R. (1984). Role of molluscan lectins in recognition processes. In “Recognition Proteins, Receptors and Probes: Invertebrates”. ( E. Cohen, ed.) p. 1–15. Alan R. Liss, New York, N.Y.Google Scholar
  20. Cheng, T. C., Rodrick, G. E., Foley, D. A., and Koehler, S. A. (1975). Release of lysozyme from hemolymph cells of Mercenarie mercenaria during phagocytosis. J. Invert. Pathol., 25, 261–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Foley, D. A. and Cheng, T. C. (1977). Degranulation and other changes of molluscan granulocytes associated with phagocytosis. J. Invert. Pathol., 29, 321–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Font, W. F. (1980). Effects of hemolymph of the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, on marine cercariae. J. Invert. Pathol., 36, 41–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hoffstein, S. and Weissmann, G. (1975). Mechanism of lysosomal enzyme release. IV. Interaction of monosodium urate crystals with dogfish and human leukocytes. Arthrit. Rheum., 18, 153–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Howland, K. H. and Cheng, T. C. (1982). Identification of bacterial chemoattractants for oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes. J. Invert. Pathol., 39, 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Prowse, R. H. and Tate, N. N. (1969). In vitro phagocytosis by amoebocytes from the haemolymph of Helix aspersa (Mailer). Evidence for opsonic factor(s) in serum. Immunology, 17, 437–443.Google Scholar
  26. Renwrantz, L. (1981). Helix pomatia: Recognition and clearance of bacteria and foreign cells in an invertebrate. In “Aspects of Developmental and Comparative Immunology I” (J. B. Solomon, ed.) p. 133–138. Pergamon Press, N.Y.Google Scholar
  27. Renwrantz, L., Yoshino, T., Cheng, T. C., and Auld, K. (1979). Size determination of hemocytes from the American oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the description of a phagocytosis mechanism. Jahrb. Zool. Abt. Physiol. Zoomorph., 83, 1–12.Google Scholar
  28. Rodrick, G. E. and Cheng, T. C. (1974). Kinetic properties of lysozyme from Crassostrea virginica hemolymph. J. Invert. Pathol., 24, 41–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rodrick, G. E. and Cheng, T. C. (1974). Activities of selected hemolymph enzymes in Biomphalaria glabrata (Mollusca). J. Invert. Pathol., 24, 374–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schmid, L. S. (1975). Chemotaxis of hemocytes from the snail Viviparus melleatus. J. Invert. Pathol., 25, 125–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schoenberg, D. A. and Cheng, T. C. (1980). Phagocytic funnel-like pseudopodia in lectin-treated gastropod hemocytes. J.. Invert. Pathol., 36, 141–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Vasta, G. R., Cheng, T. C., and Marchalonis, J. J. (1984). A lectin on the hemocyte membrane of the oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Cell Immunol., 88, 475–488.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vasta, G. R., Sullivan, J. T., Cheng, T. C., Marchalonis, J. J., Warr, G. W. (1982). A cell membrane-associated lectin of the oyster hemocyte. J. Invert. PathoZ., 40, 367–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas C. Cheng
    • 1
  1. 1.Marine Biomedical Research Program and Department of Anatomy (Cell Biology)Medical University of South CarolinaCharlestonUSA

Personalised recommendations