Parasite Immune Escape Mechanisms

  • W. M. Kemp
Part of the Comparative Pathobiology book series (CPATH, volume 8)


In contemplating how best to present this topic I was faced with two approaches. One was to catalogue all the parasites about which we know something of immune escape and list the mechanisms associated with each. The other approach was to choose one parasite and to detail our knowledge of escape mechanisms in a more exhaustive way. I have elected to pursue the second approach so that the subject may be examined in depth and the complexities of the mechanisms more easily discerned.


Adult Worm Immune Escape Schistosoma Mansoni Escape Mechanism Alternative Pathway Activation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Auriault, C., Joseph, M., Dessaint, J. P., and Capron, A. (1980). Inactivation of rat macrophhages by peptides resulting from cleavage of IgG by schistosoma larvae proteases. Inmruno2. Letters 2, 135–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Auriault, C., Ouaissi, M. A., Torpier, G., Eisen, H., and Capron, A. (1981). Proteolytic cleavage of IgG bound to the Fc receptor of Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula. Parasite Immunol., 3, 33–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Capron, A., Biguet, J., Vernes, A., and Afchain, D. (1968). Structure antigenique des helminthes. Aspects immunologiques des relations host-parasite. Pathol. Biol., 16, 121–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Caulfield, J. P., Korman, G., Butterworth, A. E., Hogan, M., David, J. R. (1980). The adherence of human neutrophils and eosinophils to schistosomula: Evidence for membrane fusion between cells and parasites. J. Cell Biol., 86, 46–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clegg, J. A., Smithers, S. R., and Terry, R. J. (1971). Acquisition of human antigens by Schistosoma mansoni during cultivation in vitro. Nature, 232, 653–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cornford, E. M., Huot, M. E., Diep, C. P., and Rowley, G. A. (1982), Protein, glycogen, and water content in schistosomes. J. Parasitol., 68, 1010–1020.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Damian, R. T. (1964). Molecular mimicry: Antigen sharing by parasite and host and its consequences. Am. Nat., 98, 129149.Google Scholar
  8. Damian, R. T. (1967). Common antigens between adult Schistosoma mansoni and the laboratory mouse. J. Parasitol., 53, 60–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Damian, R. T., Greene, N. D., and Hubbard, W. G. (1973).Google Scholar
  10. Occurrance of mouse alpha 2-macroglobulin antigenic determinants on Schistosoma mansoni adults, with evidence on their nature. J. ParasitoZ.,59, 64–73.Google Scholar
  11. Damian, R. T., Greene, N. D., Meyer, K. F., Cheever, A. W., Hubbard, W. J., Hawes, M. E., and Clark, J. D. (1976). Schistosoma mansoni in baboons III. The course and characteristics of infection, with additional observations on immunity. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 25, 299–306.Google Scholar
  12. Dean, D. A. (1974). Schistosoma mansoni: Adsorption of human blood group A & B antigens by schistosomula. J. ParasitoZ., 60, 260–263.Google Scholar
  13. Dean, D. A. (1977). Decreased binding of cytotoxic antibody by developing Schistosoma mansoni. Evidence for a surface change independent of host antigen adsorption and membrane turnover. J. ParasitoZ., 63, 418–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dean, D. A. and Sell, K. W. (1972). Surface antigens of Schistosoma mansoni. II. Adsorption of a Forssman-like antigen by schistosomula. Clin. Exp. Immunol., 12, 525–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dessein, A., Samuelson, J. C., Butterworth, A. E., Hogan, M., Sherry, B. A., Vadas, M. A., and David, J. R. (1981). Immune evasion by Schistosoma mansoni. Loss of susceptibility to antibody or complement-dependent eosinophil attack by schistosomula cultured in medium free of macromolecules. Parasitology, 82, 357–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gitter, B. D. and Damian, R. T. 91982). Murine alloantigen acquisition by schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni: Further evidence for the presence of K, D, and I region gene products on the tegumental surface. Parasite Immunol., 4, 383–393.Google Scholar
  17. Gitter, B. D., McCormick, S. L… and Damian, R. T. (1982). Murine alloantigen acquisition by Schistosoma mansoni: Presence of H-2K determinants on adult worms and failure of allogeneic lymphocytes to recognize acquired MHC gene products on schistosomula. J. ParasitoZ., 68, 513–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hockley, D. J., and McLaren, D. J. (1973). Schistosoma mansoni: Changes in the outer membrane of the tegument during development from cercaria to adult worm. Int. J. Parasitol. 3, 13–25.Google Scholar
  19. Iida, K. and Nussenzweig, V. (1981). Complement receptor is an inhibitor of the complement cascade. J. Exp. Med., 153, 1138 1150.Google Scholar
  20. Iida, K. and Nussenzweig, V. (1983). Functional properties of membrane-associated complement receptor CR1. J. Immunol., 30, 1876–1880.Google Scholar
  21. Kabil, S. M. (1976). Host complement in the schistosomal tegument. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 79, 205–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kemp, W. M. (1970). Ultrastructure of the Cercarienhüllen Reaktion of Schistosoma mansoni. J. Parasitol., 56, 713–723.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kemp, W. M. (1972). Serology of the Cercarienhüllen Reaktion of Schistosoma mansoni. J. Parasitol., 58, 686–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kemp, W. M.., Greene, N. D., and Damian, R. T. (1974). Sharing of Cercarienhüllen Reaktion antigens between Schistosoma mansoni cercariae and adults and uninfected Biomphalaria pfeifferi. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 23, 197–202.Google Scholar
  25. Kemp, W. M., Damian, R. T., Greene, N. D., and Lushbaugh, W. B. (1976a). Immunocytochemical localization of mouse alpha 2macroglobulin-like determinants on Schistosoma mansoni adults. J. Parasitol., 62, 413–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kemp, W. M. Damian, R. T., and Greene, N. D. (1976b). Immunocytochemical localization of IgG on adult Schistosoma mansoni tegumental surfaces. J. Parasitol., 62, 830–832.Google Scholar
  27. Kemp, W. M., Merritt, S. C., Bogucki, M. S., Rosier, J. G., and Seed, J. R. (1977). Evidence for adsorption of hetero-specific host immunoglobulin on the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni. J. Immunol., 119, 1849–1854.Google Scholar
  28. Kemp, W. M., Merritt, S. C., and Rosier, J. G. (1978). Schistosoma mansoni: Identification of immunoglobulins associated with the tegument of adult parasites from mice. Exp. Parasitol., 45, 81–87.Google Scholar
  29. Kemp, W. M., Brown, P. R., Merritt, S. C., and Miller, R. E. (1980). Tegument associated antigen modulation by adult male Schistosoma mansoni. J. Immunol., 124, 806–811.Google Scholar
  30. McGuinness, T. B. and Kemp, W. M. (1981). Schistosoma mansoni: Evidence for a complement dependent receptor on adult male parasites. Exp. Parasitol., 51, 236–242.Google Scholar
  31. McLaren, D. J., Clegg, J. A., and Smithers, S. R. (1975). Acquisition of host antigens by young Schistosoma mansoni in mice: correlation with failure to bind antibody in vitro. Parasitology, 70, 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McLaren, D. J., Hockley, D. J., Goldring, 0. L., and Hammond, B. J. (1978). A freeze fracture study of the developing tegumental outer membrane of Schistosoma mansoni. Parasitology, 76, 327–348.Google Scholar
  33. McLaren, D. J. and Incani, R. N. (1982). Schistosoma mansoni: Acquired resistance of developing schistosomula to immune attack in vitro. Exp. Parasitol., 53, 285–298.Google Scholar
  34. Moser, G., Wassom, D., and Sher, A. (1980). Studies of the antibody-dependent killing of schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni employing haptenic target antigens: I. Evidence that the loss in susceptibility to immune damage undergone by developing schistosomula involves a change unrelated to the masking of parasite antigens by host molecules. J. Exp. Med., 152, 41–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Quaissi, M. A., Santoro, F., and Capron, A. (1980). Interaction between Schistosoma mansoni and the complement system: Receptors for C3b on cercariae and schistosomula. Immunol. Letters, 1, 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ritchie, L. S., Knight, W. B., Oliver-Gonzalez, J., Frick, L. P., Morris, J. M., and Croker, W. L. (1967). Schistosoma mansoni infections in Cercopithecus sabacus monkeys. J. Parasitol., 53, 1217–1224.Google Scholar
  37. Samuelson, J. C., Caulfield, J. P., and David, J. R. (1980). Schistosoma mansoni: Post-transitional surface changes in schistosomula grown in vitro and in mice. Exp. Parasitot., 50, 369–383.Google Scholar
  38. Santoro, F., Ouaissi, M. A., and Capron, A. (1979). Receptors for complement (Clz and C3b) on the immature forms of Schistosoma mansoni. ICRS Med. Sci., 7, 576.Google Scholar
  39. Santoro, F., Ouaissi, M. A., Pestel, J., and Capron, A. (1980). Interaction between Schistosoma mansoni and the complement system. Binding of Clq to schistosomula. J. Immunol., 124, 2886–2891.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Sher, A., Hall, B. F., and Vadas, M. A. (1978). Acquisition of murine major histocompatibility complex gene products by schistosomula of Schistosoma mansoni. J. Exp. Med., 148, 46–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Smithers, S. R. and Terry, R. J. (1967). Resistance to experimental infection with Schistosoma mansoni in rhesus monkeys induced by the transfer of adult worms. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 61, 517–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Smithers, S. R., Terry, R. J., and Hockley, D. J. (1969). Host antigens in schistosomiasis. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 171, 483–494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sogandares-Bernal, F. (1976). Immunoglobulins attached to and in the tegument of adult Schistosoma mansoni Sambon 1907, from first infection of CF1 mice. J. Parasitol., 62, 222–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stackpole, C. W., Jacobson, J. B., and Galuska, G. (1978). Antigenic modulation in vitro. II. Modulation of thymus leukemia (TL) antigenicity requires complement component C3. J. Immunol., 120, 188–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Stirewalt, M. A. (1963). Cercaria vs schistosomula (S. mansoni): Absence of the pericercarial envelope in vivo and the early physiological and histological metamorphosis of the parasite. Exp. Parasitol., 13, 395–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tarleton, R. L. and Kemp, W. M. (1981). Demonstration of IgG-Fc and C3 receptors on adult Schistosoma mansoni. J. Immunol., 126, 379–384.Google Scholar
  47. Tavares, C. A. P., Gazzinelli, G., Mota-Santos, T. A., and Dias Da Silva, W. (1978). Schistosoma mansoni: Complement mediated cytotoxic activity in vitro and effect of decomple-mentation on acquired immunity in mice. Exp. Parasitol., 46, 145–151.Google Scholar
  48. Tavares, C. A. P,, Cordeiro, M. N., Mota-Santos, T. A., and Gazzinelli, G. (1980). Artificially transformed Schistosoma mansoni: Mechanism of acquisition of protection against antibody-mediated killing. Parasitology, 80, 95–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Torpier, G., Capron, A., and Ouaissi, M. A. (1979). Receptor of IgF (Fc) and beta 2-microglobulin on S. monsoni schistosomula. Nature, 278, 447–449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tsang, V. C. W. and Damian, R. T. (1977). Demonstration and mode of action of an inhibitor for activated Hageman factor (Factor XIIa) of the intrinsic blood coagulation pathway from Schistosoma mansoni. Blood, 49, 619–633.Google Scholar
  51. Tsang, V. C. W., Hubbard, W. J., and Damian, R. T. (1977). Coaggulation factor XIIa (activated Hageman factor) inhibitor from adult Schistosoma mansoni. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 26, 243–247.Google Scholar
  52. Webbe, G., James, C., Nelson, G. S., Smithers, S. R., and Terry, R. J. (1976). Acquired resistance to Schistosoma haematobium in the baboon (Papio anubis) after cercarial exposure and adult worm transplantation. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol., 70, 411–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Wilson, R. A. and Barnes, P. E. (1974). An in vitro investigation of dynamic processes occurring in the schistosome tegument, using compounds known to disrupt secretory processes. Parasitology, 68, 239–258.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Wilson, R. A. and Barnes, P. E. (1977). The formation and turn-over of the membranocalyx on the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni. Parasitology, 74, 61–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. M. Kemp
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

Personalised recommendations