Genitourinary Problems in the Elderly

  • Stephen C. Jacobs
  • James E. Cauley
Part of the Contemporary Geriatric Medicine book series (COGM, volume 2)


Epidemiologic studies regarding renal lithiasis have been published since the 1940s. These studies were primarily based on hospital survey analyses, thus, excluding stone disease not requiring hospitalization. In general, stones occur in 9 to 20 persons per 10,000 population.1,2 Roughly 12% of the population is expected to have a urinary stone at some time in their lives.3 The annual patient cost in the United States was at least $47.3 million during 1974.4 Approximately 80% of stones consist of calcium oxalate, 10% struvite, and 7% uric acid.5


Uric Acid Urinary Stone Renal Tubular Acidosis Bladder Stone Uric Acid Stone 
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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen C. Jacobs
    • 1
  • James E. Cauley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of UrologyMedical College of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA

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