Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy (Esr)
Electron spin resonance (esr) (also known as electron paramagnetic resonance, epr) has been successfully applied to biological problems since the late 1950s (Commoner et al., 1957). The method compares closely with nmr in being essentially nondestructive since the measuring wavelengths fall within the microwave portion of the spectrum, corresponding to photon energies, hv, much too weak to break chemical bonds. A magnetic field must be applied in order to detect esr phenomena, but in general, the field is less intense than for nmr (see Chapter 2). The distinctive advantage of esr (compared with nmr) is its sensitivity, permitting measurements at very low concentrations. In some cases this can be a disadvantage, i.e., interfering impurities may be confused with the entity one is attempting to observe (see an example in the last paragraph of Section 126.96.36.199).
KeywordsElectron Spin Resonance Unpaired Electron Spin Label Paramagnetic Center Hyperfine Coupling
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