Clinical Interviewing of the Patient and History in Neuropsychological Assessment

  • Andrew Phay
  • Carol Gainer
  • Gerald Goldstein


Although most of this volume is concerned with the application of formal tests to the assessment of brain-damaged patients, few would deny the importance of some form of clinical assessment as a component of a comprehensive evaluation. Users of standard test batteries may not use clinical data in selecting tests to be administered, but may make extensive use of such material in their interpretations and report preparations. Neuropsychologists who use flexible test batteries may also use clinical data in interpretation, but the actual selection of tests may be based in whole or part on the initial interview and the review of historical material. The major exception to the practice of conducting an initial interview and taking a history prior to test administration is in the case of those clinicians who prefer to do blind interpretation, and who do not want to review the history or even see the patient prior to making an interpretation based exclusively on test data. The practice of blind interpretation is a controversial matter, with compelling justifications provided by those for and those opposed to it. It seems likely that the wisdom of using blind interpretation or not using it is a complex matter involving one’s approach to neuropsychological assessment, the context in which one practices, the relative significance of research and direct patient care goals in one’s practice, and the degree of independent clinical responsibility of the neuropsychologist.


Clinical Interview Neuropsychological Assessment Initial Interview Brief Psychiatric Rate Scale General Clinical Practice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Albert, M. L., Goodglass, H., Helm, N. A., Rubens, A. B., & Alexander, M. P. (1981). Clinical aspects of dysphasia. New York: Springer-Verlag/Wein.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Bech, P., Gram, L. F., Dein, E., Jacobsen, O., Vitger, J., & Bolwig, T. G. (1975). Quantitative rating of depressive states. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 51, 161–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T. (1967). Measure of depression: The depression inventory. In A. T. Beck (Ed.), Depression: Clinical, experimental and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  5. Blessed, G., Tomlinson, B. E., & Roth, M. (1968). The association between quantitative measures of dementia and of senile change in the cerebral grey matter of elderly subjects. British Journal of Psychiatry, 114, 797–811.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burdock, E. I., Hardesty, A. S., Hakerem, G., Zubin, J., & Beck, Y. M. (1968). Ward behavior inventory. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Burdock, E. I., Sudilovsky, A., & Gershon, S. (1982). The behavior of psychiatric patients. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  8. Christensen, A.-L. (1975). Luria’s neuropsychological investigation. New York: Spectrum.Google Scholar
  9. Christensen, A.-L. (1984). The Luria method of examination of the brain-impaired patient. In P. E. Logue & J. M. Schear (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology: A multi-disciplinary approach. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  10. Coblentz, J. M., Mattis, S., Zingesser, L., Kasoff, S., Wisniewski, H., & Katzman, R. (1973). Presenile dementia: Clinical aspects and evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. Archives of Neurology, 29, 302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crook, T., Ferris, S., & Bartus, R. (1983). Assessment in geriatric psychopharmacology. New Canaan, CT: Mark Powley Associates.Google Scholar
  12. Diller, L., & Gordon, W. A. (1981). Rehabilitation and clinical neuropsychology. In S. B. Filskov & T. J. Boll (Eds.), Handbook of clinical neuropsychology. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  13. Diller, L., & Weinberg, J. (1971). Studies in scanning behavior in hemiplegia. In L. Diller & J. Weinberg (Eds.), Studies in cognition and rehabilitation in hemiplegia. New York: New York Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, New York University.Google Scholar
  14. Duke University Center for the Study of the Aging. (1978). Multidimensional functional assessment: The OARS methodology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Endicott, J., & Spitzer, R. L. (1978). A diagnostic interview: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 837–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Feighner, J., Robins, E., Guze, S., Woodruff, R., Winokur, G., & Munoz, R. (1972). Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 26, 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). Minimental state. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12, 189–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Goldstein, G. (1979). Methodological and theoretical issues in neuropsychological assessment. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 1, 23–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goldstein, G., & Ruthven, L. (1983). Rehabilitation of the brain damaged adult. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  20. Gurland, B. J., Kuriansky, J., Sharpe, L., Simon, R., Stiller, P., & Birkett P. (1977). The comprehensive assessment and referral evaluation ( CARE)—rationale, development and reliability. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 8, 9–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 23, 56–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hamsher, K. deS. (1984). Specialized neuropsychological assessment methods. In G. Goldstein & M. Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of psychological assessment. New York: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  23. Heaton, R. K., & Pendleton, M. G. (1981). Use of neuropsychological tests to predict adult patients’ everyday functioning. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 807–821.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Helzer, J., Robins, L., Croughan, J., & Welner, A. (1981). Renard diagnostic interview. Archives of General Psychiatry, 38, 393–398.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hines, F. R., & Williams, R. B. (1975). Dimensional diagnosis and the medical student’s grasp of psychiatry. Archives of General Psychiatry, 32, 525–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hirschberg, G. G., Lewis, L., & Vaughan, P. (1976). Rehabilitation: A manual for the care of the disabled and elderly ( 2nd ed. ). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  27. Holland, A. L. (1980). CADL Communicative abilities in daily living. A test of functional communication for aphasic adults. Baltimore: University Park Press.Google Scholar
  28. Honigfeld, G., & Klett, C. (1965). The Nurse’s Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation ( NOSIE ): A new scale for measuring improvement in schizophrenia. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21, 65–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jennett, B., & Teasdale, G. (1981). Management of head injuries. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.Google Scholar
  30. Khavari, K., & Farber, P. (1978). A profile instrument for the quantification and assessment of alcohol consumption. The Khavari Alcohol Test. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 39, 1525–1539.Google Scholar
  31. Logue, P. E. (1975). Understanding and living with brain damage. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  32. Lorr, M., & Klett, C. J. (1966). Inpatient multidimensional psychiatric scale, revised. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  33. Luria, A. R. (1973). The working brain. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  34. Marlatt, G. A. (1976). The drinking profile: A questionnaire for the behavioral assessment of alcoholism. In E. J. Mash & L. G. Terdal (Eds.), Behavior therapy assessment: Diagnosis, design and evaluation. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  35. Matarazzo, J. D. (1972). Wechsler’s measurement and appraisal of adult intelligence. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  36. McLellan, A., Luborsky, L., Woody, G., & O’Brien, C. (1980). An improved diagnostic evaluation instrument for substance abuse patients: The Addiction Severity Index. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 168, 26–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mohs, R. C., Rosen, W. G., Greenwald, B. S., & Davis, K. L. (1983). Neuropathologically validated scales for Alzheimer’s disease. In T. Crook, S. Ferris, & R. Bartus (Eds.), Assessment in geriatric psychopharmacology, New Canaan, CT: Mark Powley Associates.Google Scholar
  38. Moore, R. A. (1972). The diagnosis of alcoholism in a psychiatric hospital American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 1565–1569.Google Scholar
  39. O’Donnell, W. E., & Reynolds, D. Mc. Q. (1983). Neuropsychological Impairment Scale. Annapolis, MD: Anapolis Psychological Services.Google Scholar
  40. Overall, J. E., & Gorham, J. R. (1962). The brief psychiatric rating scale. Psychological Reports, 10, 799–812.Google Scholar
  41. Parsons, O. A. (1984, May). Neuropsychological consequences of alcohol abuse: Many questions—some answers. Paper presented at NIAAA Conference on Clinical Implications of Recent Neuropsychological Findings, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  42. Raskin, A. (1982). Assessment of psychopathology by the nurse or psychiatric aide. In E. I. Burdock, A. Sudilovsky, & S. Gershon (Eds.), The behavior of psychiatric patients: Quantitative techniques for evaluation. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  43. Robins, S. L., Helzer, J., Croughan, N. A., & Ratcliff, K. (1981). National institute of mental health diagnostic interview schedule. Archives of General Psychiatry, 18, 381–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ryan, C., Vega, A., Longstreet, E., & Drash, A. (1984). Neuropsychological changes in adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 335–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sarno, M. T. (1969). The Functional Communication Profile: Manual of directions. New York: New York Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine, New York University Medical Center.Google Scholar
  46. Schear, J. M. (1984). Neuropsychological assessment of the elderly in clinical practice. In P. E. Logue & J. M. Schear (Eds.), Clinical neuropsychology. A multidisciplinary approach. Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  47. Schinka, J. A. (1984). Neuropsychological Status Examination. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  48. Spitzer, R. L., Endicott, H., & Robbins, E. (1978). Research diagnostic criteria rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 773–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sunderland, A., Harros, J. E., & Gleave, J. (1984). Memory failures in everyday life following severe head injury. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 6, 127–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Swiercinsky, D. (1978). Manual for the Adult Neuropsychological Evaluation. Springfield, Il: Charles C Thomas.Google Scholar
  51. Wechsler, D. (1944). The Measurement of Adult Intelligence, 3rd Ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Weinstein, E. A., & Kahn, R. L. (1955). Denial of illness: Symbolic and physiological aspects. Springfield, Il: Charles C Thomas.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Wells, C. E. (1979). Pseudodementia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 895–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Wilson, B., Baddeley, A., & Hutchins, H. (1984). The Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test: A preliminary report. Oxford: Rivermead Rehabilitation Center.Google Scholar
  55. Wilson, R. S., Rosenbaum, G., & Brown, G. (1979). The problem of premorbid intelligence in neuropsychological assessment. Journal of Clinical Neuropsychology, 1, 49–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wing, J. K., Cooper,J. E., & Sartorius, N. (1974). The measurement and classification of psychiatric symptoms. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Yesavage, J. A., Brink, T. L., Rose, T. L., & Adey, M. (1983). The geriatric depression rating scale: Comparison with other self-report and psychiatric rating scales. In T. Crook, S. Ferris, & R. Bartus (Eds.), Assessment in geriatric psychopharmacology. New Canaan, CT: Mark Powley Associates.Google Scholar
  58. Zubin, J. (1967). Classification of the behavior Disorders. Annual Review of Psychology, 18, 373–406. Palo Alto, CA: Annual Reviews.Google Scholar
  59. Zubin, J. (1984). Inkblots do not a test make. Contemporary Psychology, 29, 153–154.Google Scholar
  60. Zung, W. W. K. (1965). A self-rating depression scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Phay
    • 1
  • Carol Gainer
    • 2
  • Gerald Goldstein
    • 3
  1. 1.Veterans Administration Medical CenterMurfreesboroUSA
  2. 2.Veterans Administration Medical CenterMurfreesboroUSA
  3. 3.Veterans Administration Medical CenterPittsburghUSA

Personalised recommendations