Advertisement

Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

  • Felipe San-Blas
  • Gioconda San-Blas

Abstract

Although it has been nearly 80 years since the dimorphic nature of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis was first described by Lutz (1908), our knowledge of the biological events that take place in this process has been acquired very slowly, and even today many important questions remain unanswered. The emphasis of research on dimorphism has been mostly on the terminal effects, mainly changes in cell-wall structure and composition; the nature of the primary reactions leading to the manifestation of these terminal effects is still unknown.

Keywords

Yeast Cell Wall Mycelial Form Particulate Preparation Glucan Synthesis Mycelial Phase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Archer, D. B., 1977, Chitin biosynthesis in protoplast fractions of Aspergillus fumigatus, Biochem. J. 164:653–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Azuma, I., Kanetsuna, F., Tanaka, Y., Yammamura, Y., and Carbonell, L. M., 1974, Chemical and immunological properties of galactomannans obtained from Histoplasma duboisii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis, and Blastomyces der-matitidis, Mycopathol. Mycol Appl. 54:111–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baguley, B., Rommele, G., GJ., and Wehrli, W., 1979, Papulacandin B: An inhibitor of glucan synthesis in yeast spheroplasts, Eur. J. Biochem. 97:345–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bartnicki-Garcia, S., 1968, Cell wall chemistry, morphogenesis, and taxonomy of fungi, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 22:87–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cabib, E., and Farkas, V., 1971, The control of morphogenesis: An enzymatic mechanism for the initiation of septum formation in yeast, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 68:2052–2056.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carbonell, L. M., 1969, Ultrastructure of dimorphic transformation in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, J. Bacteriol. 100:1076–1082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Carbonell, L. M., 1972, Ultrastructure of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in culture, in: Para-coccidioidomycosis (Pan American Health Organization, eds. Sci. Publ. No. 254), Proceedings of the First Pan American Symposium on Paracoccidioidomycosis, 1971, Medellin, Colombia, pp. 21–28.Google Scholar
  8. Carbonell, L. M., and Pollak, L., 1968, Ultrastructura del Paracoccidioides brasiliensis en cultivos de la fase levaduriforme, Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 19:184–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Carbonell, L. M., and Rodriguez, J., 1968, Mycelial phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Blastomyces dermatitidis: An electron microscope study, J. Bacteriol. 96:533–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ciferri, R., and Redaelli, P., 1936, Paracoccidioidaceae, n. fam. instuita per Tagente del granuloma paracoccidioide, Biol. Ist. Sieroter. Milanese 15:97–102.Google Scholar
  11. Elorza, M. V., Larriba, G., Villanueva, J. R., and Sentandreu, R., 1977, Biosynthesis of the yeast cell wall: Selective assays and regulation of some mannosyl transferase activities, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J. Microbiol. Serol. 43:129–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Emmons, C. W., 1959, Fungus nuclei in the diagnosis of mycoses, Mycologia 51:227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Flores-Carreón, A., Gomez-Villanueva, A., and San-Bias, G., 1979, β-1, 3-Glucanase and dimorphism in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J. Microbiol. Serol. 45:265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Furtado, J. S., de Brito, T., and Freymuller, E., 1967, The structure and reproduction of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in human tissue, Sabouraudia 5:226–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Grivell, A., and Jackson, J., 1968, Thymidine kinase: Evidence for its absence from Neurospora crassa and some other micro-organisms, and the relevance of this to the specific labelling of deoxyribonucleic acid, J. Gen. Microbiol. 54:307–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hallak, J., San-Blas, F., and San-Bias, G., 1982, Isolation and wall analysis of dimorphic mutants of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Sabouraudia 20:51–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Inlow, D., 1979, Estudios sobre el dimorfismo en Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Thesis Ms. Sc, IVIC, Caracas, Venezuela.Google Scholar
  18. Kanetsuna, F., 1972, Biochemical characteristics of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, in: Paracoccidioidomycosis, Proceedings of the First Pan American Symposium on Paracocci-dioidomycosis, 1971, Medellín, Colombia, pp. 31–37.Google Scholar
  19. Kanetsuna, F., 1981, Ultrastructural studies on the dimorphism of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Blastomyces dermatitidies, and Histoplasma capsulatum, Sabouraudia 19:275–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kanetsuna, F., and Carbonell, L. M., 1966, Enzymes in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle in the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, J. Bacteriol. 92:1315–1320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kanetsuna, F., and Carbonell, L. M., 1970, Cell wall glucans of the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, J. Bacteriol. 101:675–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kanetsuna, F., Carbonell, L. M., Morena, R. E., and Rodréguez, J., 1969, Cell wall composition of the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidiodes brasiliensis, J. Bacteriol. 97:1036–1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Kanetsuna, F., Carbonell, L. M., Azuma, I., and Yamamura, Y., 1972, Biochemical studies on thermal dimorphism of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, J. Bacteriol. 110:208–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Keller, F. A., and Cabib, E., 1971, Chitin and yeast budding: Properties of chitin synthetase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, J. Biol. Chem. 246:160–166.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Lopez-Romero, E., and Ruiz-Herrera, J., 1976, Synthesis of chitin by particulate preparations from Aspergillus flavus, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek J. Microbiol. Serol. 42:261–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lutz, A., 1908, Una mycose pseudo-coccidica localizada na bocae observada no Brasil: Contribuicao ao conhecimento das hyphoblastomycoses americanas, Brasil Med. 22:121–124, 141-144.Google Scholar
  27. Negroni, P., 1931, Estudio micológico sobre cincuenta casos de micosis observados en Buenos Aires, M.D. Thesis, Prensa Universitaria, Buenos Aires, Argentina.Google Scholar
  28. Nickerson, W., and Edwards, G., 1949, Studies on the physiological basis of morphogenesis in fungi, J. Gen. Physiol. 33:41–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Restrepo, A., 1970, A reappraisal of the microscopical appearance of the mycelial phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Sabouraudia 8:141–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ruiz-Herrera, J., López-Romero, E., and Bartnicki-García, S., 1977, Properties of chitin synthetase in isiolated chitosomes from yeast cells of Mucor rouxii, J. Biol. Chem. 252:3338–3343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. San-Blas, F., and Centeno, S., 1977, Isolation and preliminary characterization of auxo-trophic and morphological mutants of the yeastlike form of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, J. Bacteriol. 129:138–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. San Blas, F., San-Blas, G., and Inlow D., 1980, Dimorphism in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, in: Medical Mycology (Hans-Jurgen Preusser, ed.), Proceedings of Mycological Symposium XII International Congress of Microbiology, Munich, 1978, Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, pp. 23–28.Google Scholar
  33. San-Blas, F., San-Blas, G., Hallak, J., and Merino, E., 1983, Ultrastructure and cell wall chemistry of a thermosensitive mutant of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Curr. Microbiol. 8:85–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. San-Blas, G., 1979, Biosynthesis of glucans by subcellular fractions of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Expt. Mycol. 3:249–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. San-Blas, G., and San Blas, F., 1977, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis: Cell wall structure and virulence, a review, Mycopathologia 62:77–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Traxler, P., Gruner, J., and Auden, J. A., 1977, Papulacandins, a new family of antibiotics with antifungal activity, J. Antibiot. 30:289–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Felipe San-Blas
    • 1
  • Gioconda San-Blas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Cellular BiologyVenezuelan Institute of Scientific Investigations (I.V.I.C.)CaracasVenezuela

Personalised recommendations