Blastomyces dermatitidis

  • Judith E. Domer


The existence of two morphological entities of Blastomyces dermatitidis, the causative agent of blastomycosis (North American blastomycosis, Gilchrist’s disease), was recognized by Gilchrist and Stokes (1898) soon after the disease was first described by Gilchrist (1896). Gilchrist and Stokes (1898) named the fungus and succeeded in culturing it at room temperature despite gross contamination of the cultures with pyogenic cocci. Ricketts (1901), however, was the first to publish detailed in vitro appearances of both yeast and mycelial forms, and it was he who suggested that temperature was a key factor in determining the type of growth observed. In an equally detailed and accurate presentation, Hamburger (1907) confirmed the importance of temperature in determining the morphological type and described how the “capsule” of the yeastlike cell ruptured, leaving “collarlike” projections through which a new bud was formed or a germ tube was initiated.


Yeast Cell Germ Tube Amino Sugar Yeast Form Mycelial Form 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Area Leao, A. E. de, and Cury, A., 1950, Deficiencias vitaminicas de cogumelos pathogenicos, Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 5:65–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Azuma, I., Kanetsuna, F., Tanaka, Y., Yamamura, Y., and Carbonell, L. M., 1974, Chemical and immunological properties of galactomannans obtained from Histoplasma duboisii, Histoplasma capsulatum, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Blastomyces der-matitidis, Mycopathol Mycol. Appl. 54:111–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bakerspigel, A., 1957, The structure and mode of division of the nuclei in the yeast cells and mycelium of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Can. J. Microbiol. 3:923–936.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bawdon, R. E., and Garrison, R. G., 1974, The uptake and incorporation of leucine and cystine by the mycelial and yeastlike phases of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 54:421–433.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blank, F., 1954, On the cell walls of dimorphic fungi causing systemic infections, Can. J. Microbiol. 1:1–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carbonell, L. M., 1969, Ultrastructure of dimorphic transformation in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, J. Bacteriol. 100:1076–1082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Carbonell, L. M., and Rodriguez, J., 1968, Mycelial phase of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and Blastomyces dermatitidis: An electron microscope study, J. Bacteriol. 96:533–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Ciferri, R., and Redaelli, P., 1935, Prima contribuzione allo studio delle cosidette blasto-micosi americane, Atti Ist. Bot. Univ. Pavia 6:55–105.Google Scholar
  9. Conant, N. F., and Howell, A., 1942, The similarity of the fungi causing South American blastomycosis (paracoccidioidal granuloma) and North American blastomycosis (Gilchrist’s disease), J. Invest. Dermatol. 5:353–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cox, R. A., and Best, G. K., 1972, Cell wall composition of two strains of Blastomyces dermatitidis exhibiting differences in virulence for mice, Infect. Immun. 5:449–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Davis, T. E., Jr., Domer, J. E., and Li, Y.-T., 1977, Cell wall studies of Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis, Infect. Immun. 15:978–987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. DeLamater, E. D., 1948, The nuclear cytology of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Mycologia 40:430–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeLamater, E. D., 1949, Rough-smooth variation in Blastomyces dermatitidis Gilchrist and Stokes 1898, J. Invest. Dermatol. 12:101–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. DeMonbreun, W. A., 1935, Experimental chronic cutaneous blastomycosis in monkeys, Arch. Dermatol. Syphilol. 31:831–854.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Domer, J. E., 1971, Monosaccharide and chitin content of cell walls of H istoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis, J. Bacteriol. 107:870–877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Domer, J. E., and Hamilton, J. G., 1971, The readily extracted lipids of Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 231:465–478.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Edwards, G. A., and Edwards, M. R., 1960, The intracellular membranes of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Am. J. Bot. 47:622–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Garrison, R. G., and Boyd, K. S., 1978, Role of the conidium in dimorphism of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Mycopathologia 64:29–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garrison, R. G., Dodd, H. T., and Hamilton, J. W., 1970a, The uptake of low molecular weight sulfur-containing compounds by Histoplasma capsulatum and related dimorphic fungi, Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 40:171–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Garrison, R. G., Lane, J. W., and Field, M. F., 1970b, Ultrastructural changes during the yeastlike to mycelial-phase conversion of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum, J. Bacteriol. 101:628–635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Gilardi, G. L., 1965, Nutrition of systemic and subcutaneous pathogenic fungi, Bacteriol. Rev. 29:406–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gilardi, G. L., and Laffer, N. C., 1962, Nutritional studies on the yeast phase of Blastomyces dermatitidis and B. brasiliensis, J. Bacteriol. 83:219–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gilchrist, T. C., 1896, A case of blastomycetic dermatitis in man, Johns Hopkins Hosp. Rep. 1:269–290.Google Scholar
  24. Gilchrist, T. C., and Stokes, W. R., 1898, A case of pseudolupus vulgaris caused by a Blastomyces, J. Exp. Med. 3:53–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Halliday, W. J., and McCoy, E., 1955, Biotin as a growth requirement for Blastomyces dermatitidis, J. Bacteriol. 70:464–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hamburger, W. W., 1907, A comparative study of four strains of organisms isolated from four cases of generalized blastomycosis, J. Infect. Dis. 4:201–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Howard, D. H., and Herndon, R. L., 1960, Tissue cultures of mouse peritoneal exudates inoculated with Blastomyces dermatitidis, J. Bacteriol. 80:522–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kanetsuna, F., 1967, Estudio bioquimico del Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Acta Cient. Venezolana 3:308–317.Google Scholar
  29. Kanetsuna, F., 1981, Ultrastructural studies on the dimorphism of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum, Sabouraudia 19:275–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kanetsuna, F., and Carbonell, L. M., 1971, Cell wall composition of the yeastlike and mycelial forms of Blastomyces dermatitidis, J. Bacteriol. 106:946–948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kanetsuna, F., Carbonell, L. M., Moreno, R. E., and Rodrigeuz, J., 1969, Cell wall composition of the yeast and mycelial forms of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, J. Bacteriol. 97:1036–1041.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Lane, J. W., and Garrison, R. G., 1970, Electronmicroscropy of self-parasitism by Histo-plasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis, Mycopathol. Mycol Appl. 40:271–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Levine, S., and Ordal, Z. J., 1946, Factors influencing the morphology of Blastomyces dermatitidis, J. Bacteriol. 52:687–694.Google Scholar
  34. Massoudnia, A., and Scheer, E. R., 1982, The influence of medium on the chemical composition of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Curr. Microbiol. 7:25–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Michelson, I. D., 1928, Blastomycosis: A pathologic and bacteriologic study, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 91:1871–1876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Miyaji, M., and Nishimura, K., 1977, Investigation of dimorphism of Blastomyces dermatitidis by agar-implantation, Mycopathologia 60:73–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nickerson, W. J., 1948, Enzymatic control of cell division in microorganisms, Nature (London) 162:241–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Nickerson, W. J., and Edwards, G. A., 1949, Studies on the physiological bases of morphogenesis in fungi. I. The respiratory metabolism of dimorphic pathogenic fungi, J. Gen. Physiol. 33:41–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Nickerson, W. J., and Falcone, G., 1956, Identification of protein disulfide reductase as a cellular division enzyme in yeasts, Science 124:722–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Odds, F. C., Kaufman, L., McLaughlin, D., Callaway, C., and Blumer, S. O., 1971, Effect of chitinase complex on the antigenicity and chemistry of yeast-form cell walls and other fractions of Histoplasma capsulatum and Blastomyces dermatitidis, Sabouraudia 12:138–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ricketts, H. T., 1901, Oidiomycosis of skin and its fungi, J. Med. Res. 6:373–546.Google Scholar
  42. Roy, I., and Landau, J. W., 1971, Polymorphism of malate dehydrogenase in cytoplasmic and mitochondrial fractions of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Sabouraudia 9:39–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Roy, I., and Landau, J. W., 1972a, Protein constituents of cell walls of the dimorphic phases of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Can. J. Microbiol. 18:473–478.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Roy, I., and Landau, J. W., 1972b, Composition of the alkali resistant cell wall material of dimorphic Blastomyces dermatitidis, Sabouraudia 10:107–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Salvin, S. B., 1949, Phase-determining factors in Blastomyces dermatitidis, Mycologia 41:311–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stewart, R. A., and Meyer, K. F., 1938, Studies in the metabolism of Coccidioides immitis (Stiles), J. Infect. Dis. 63:196–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stober, A. M., 1914, Systemic blastomycosis: A report of its pathological, bacteriological and clinical features, Arch. Intern. Med. 13:509–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Taylor, J. J., 1961, Nucleic acids and dimorphism in Blastomyces, Exp. Cell Res. 24:155–158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Zahraee, M. H., Wilson, T. E., and Scheer, E. R., 1982, The effect of growth media upon the ultrastructure of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Can. J. Microbiol. 28:211–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Judith E. Domer
    • 1
  1. 1.Tulane University School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA

Personalised recommendations