Dimorphism in Mucor Species with Emphasis on M. rouxii and M. bacilliformis
Different species of Mucorales are characterized by their alternative growth as either hyphae or yeasts depending on the culture conditions; i.e., they are dimorphic. However, not all Mucorales are dimorphic; in fact, some species grow only as hyphal organisms (they are monomorphic), and among these, some grow only aerobically. Yeast growth among some dimorphic species may be induced by anaerobiosis, whereas others require high CO2 tension plus anaerobiosis to grow in the yeast morphology. These different patterns of growth and some representative mucoraceous species are listed in Table I. However, it must be anticipated that this grouping of species is an oversimplification and represents only a broad guideline for discussion. Factors such as the carbon and nitrogen sources, inhibitors, and others may severely affect the growth patterns of the different species listed.
KeywordsGlutamate Dehydrogenase Hyphal Growth Yeast Growth Yeast Form Wall Growth
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Bartnicki-García, S., 1973, Fundamental aspects of hyphal morphogenesis, in: Microbial Differentiation (J. M. Ashworth and J. E. Smith, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 245–267.Google Scholar
- Bartnicki-García, S., Ruiz-Herrera, J., and Bracker, C. E., 1979, Chitosomes and chitin synthesis, in: Fungal Walls and Hyphal Growth (J. H. Burnett and A. P. J. Trinci, eds.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 149–168.Google Scholar
- Borgia, P., and Mehnert, D. W., 1981, Purification of a soluble and a wall-bound form of β-glucosidase from Mucor racemosus, J. Bacteriol. 149:515–522.Google Scholar
- Brunswick, H., 1924, Untersuchungen über Geschlechts und Kern Verhältnisse bei der Hymenomyzetengattung Coprinus, in: Botanische Abhandlungen, Vol. 5 (K. Goebel, ed.), Gustav Fisher, Jena, pp. 1–152.Google Scholar
- Dow, J. M., and Rubery, P. H., 1977, Chemical fractionation of the cell walls of mycelial and yeast-like forms of Mucor rouxii: A comparative study of the polysaccharide and glycoprotein components, J. Gen. Microbiol 99:29–41.Google Scholar
- Fevre, M. 1981, Regulation of glucan synthetase activities and its implication in fungal cell wall growth, in: Cell Walls’ 81 (D. G. Robinson and H. Quader, eds), Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgellschaft mbH, Stuttgart, pp. 143–152.Google Scholar
- Gooday, G. W., 1971, An autoradiographic study of hyphal growth of some fungi, J. Gen. Microbiol. 99:1–11.Google Scholar
- Jan, Y. N., 1974, Properties and cellular localization of chitin synthetase in Phycomyces blakesleeanus, J. Biol. Chem. 249:1973–1979.Google Scholar
- Jones, B. E., and Bu’Lock, J. D., 1977, The effect of N 6,O2-dibutyryladenosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate on morphogenesis in Mucorales, J. Gen. Microbiol. 103:29–36.Google Scholar
- McMurrough, I. Flores-Carreon, A., and Bartnicki-García, S., 1971, Pathway of chitin synthesis and cellular localization of chitin synthetase in Mucor rouxii, J. Biol. Chem. 15:3990–4007.Google Scholar
- Trinci, A. P. J., and Saunders, P. T., 1977, Tip growth of fungal hyphae, J. Gen. Microbiol. 103:243–248.Google Scholar