Arthroconidium-Spherule-Endospore Transformation in Coccidioides immitis

  • Garry T. Cole
  • S. H. Sun


Coccidioides immitis is a peculiar pathogen that remains a taxonomic enigma. Its natural habitat is soil, geographically limited with rare exceptions to the arid and semiarid regions of the western hemisphere, where it grows as a mold, producing dry arthroconidia. The conidia are dispersed as aerosols when soil is disturbed and serve as infectious propagules for humans and other animals. Infection is associated with morphological transformation of the conidium into a multinucleate spherule, the contents of which subsequently differentiate into a myriad of tiny, uninucleate endospores. The latter are released from the parent spherule, and each endospore is potentially capable of initiating a second generation of spherules within the host. Thus, C. immitis is a diphasic microorganism, characterized by distinct saprobic and parasitic cycles (Figure 1). The saprobic phase of C. immitis differs little from that of other soil fungi that produce arthroconidia (Sigler and Carmichael, 1976; Carmichael et al., 1980) and reveals morphological features that suggest an ascomycetous relationship, e.g., septate hyphae, simple septal pores, and Woronin bodies. On the other hand, it is the only species of arthroconidial fungus known to produce a primary infection in humans and to be capable of undergoing transformation from conidium to spherule to disseminating endospores within the host. Hence, C. immitis is unique among fungi that cause human mycoses, being distinguished from morphogenetically similar saprobes by its pathogenicity and from other pathogenic fungi by its unusual parasitic cycle. Coccidioides remains a monospecific formgenus.


Wall Fraction Spherule Wall Antigenic Composition Mycelial Phase Parasitic Cycle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Austwick, P. K. C., 1966, The role of spores in the allergies and mycoses of man and animals, in: The Fungus Spore (M. F. Madelin, ed.), Butterworths, London, pp. 321–337.Google Scholar
  2. Axelsen, N. H., 1971, Antigen-antibody crossed electrophoresis (Laurell) applied to the study of the antigenic structure of Candida albicans, Infect. Immun. 4:525–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Axelsen, N. H., 1973, Quantitative immunoelectrophoretic methods as tools for a polyvalent approach to standardization in the immunochemistry of Candida albicans, Infect. Immun. 7:949–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Axelsen, N. H. (ed.), 1975, Quantitative Immunoelectrophoresis, Universitetforlaget, Oslo.Google Scholar
  5. Baker, E. E., and Mrak, E. M., 1941, Spherule formation in culture by Coccidioides immitis Rixford and Gilchrist, Am. J. Trop. Med. 21:589–594.Google Scholar
  6. Baker, E. E., Mrak, E. M., and Smith, C. E., 1943, The morphology, taxonomy, and distribution of Coccidioides immitis Rixford and Gilchrist 1896, Farlowia 1:199–244.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, O., and Braude, A. I., 1956, A study of stimuli leading to the production of spherules in coccidioidomycosis, J. Lab. Clin. Med. 47:169–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beaman, L., and Holmberg, C. A., 1980, In vitro response of alveolar macrophages to infection with Coccidioides immitis, Infect. Immun. 28:594–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beaman, L., Benjamin, E., and Pappagianis, D., 1981, Role of lymphocytes in macrophage killing of Coccidioides immitis in vitro, Infect. Immun. 34:347–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bedell, G. W., and Soll, D. R., 1979, Effects of low concentrations of zinc on the growth and dimorphism of Candida albicans: Evidence for zinc-resistant and-sensitive pathways of mycelium formation, Infect. Immun. 26:348–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Beever, R. E., and Dempsey, G. P., 1978, Function of rodlets on the surface of fungal spores, Nature (London) 272:608–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beever, R. E., Redgwell, R. J., and Dempsey, G. P., 1979, Purification and chemical characterization of the rodlet layer of Neurospora crassa conidia, J. Bacteriol. 140:1063–1070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bernstein, D. I., Tipton, J. R., Schoot, S. F., and Cherry, J. D., 1981, Coccidioidomycosis in a neonate; Maternal-infant transmission, J. Pediatr. 99:752–754.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Blank, F., and Burke, R. C., 1954, Chemical composition of cell wall of Coccidioides immitis, Nature (London) 173:829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bracker, C. E., 1966, Ultrastructural aspects of sporangiospore formation in Gilbertella persicaria, in: The Fungus Spore (M. F. Madelin, ed.), Butterworths, London, pp. 39–60.Google Scholar
  16. Bracker, C. E., 1968, The ultrastructure and development of sporangia in Gilbertella persicaria, Mycologia 60:1016–1067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Brewer, J. H., Parrott, C. L., and Rimland, D., 1982, Disseminated coccidioidomycosis in a heart transplant recipient, Sabouraudia 20:162–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brosbe, E. A., 1967, Use of refined agar for the in vitro propagation of the spherule phase of Coccidioides immitis, J. Bacteriol. 93:497–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Campbell, D. H., Garvey, J. S., Cremer, N. E., and Sussdorf, D. H., 1970, Methods in Immunology, Benjamin, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Carmichael, J. W., Kendrick, W. B., Conners, I. L., and Sigler, L., 1980, The Genera of Hyphomycetes, University of Alberta Press, Edmonton.Google Scholar
  21. Catanzaro, A., 1979, Coccidioidin sensitivity in San Diego schools, Sabouraudia 17:85–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chandler, F. W., Kaplan, W., and Ajello, L., 1980, Histopathology of Mycotic Diseases, Yearbook Medical Publishers, Chicago.Google Scholar
  23. Ciferri, R., and Redaelli, P., 1936, Morfologia, biologia e posizione sistematica di Coccidioides immitis Stiles e delle sue varieta, con notizie sul granuloma coccidioide, Mem. R. Accad. Ital. Cl Sci Fis Mat. Nat. Chim. 7:399–475.Google Scholar
  24. Clutterbuck, A. J., and Roper, J. A., 1966, A direct determination of nuclear distribution in heterokaryons of Aspergillus nidulans, Genet. Res. 7:185–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cole, G. T., 1973, A correlation between rodlet orientation and conidiogenesis in Hyphomycetes, Can. J. Bot. 51:2413–2422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cole, G. T., 1975, The thallic mode of conidiogenesis in the Fungi Imperfecti, Can. J. Bot. 53:2983–3001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cole, G. T., and Kendrick, W. B., 1968, A thin culture chamber for time-lapse photomicrography of fungi at high magnifications, Mycologia 60:340–344.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Cole, G. T., and Pope, L. M., 1981, Surface wall components of Aspergillus niger conidia, in: The Fungal Spore: Morphogenetic Controls (G. Turian and H. R. Hohl, eds.), Academic Press, London, p. 195.Google Scholar
  29. Cole, G. T., and Samson, R. A., 1979,. Patterns of Development in Conidial Fungi, Pitman, London.Google Scholar
  30. Cole, G. T., and Samson, R. A., 1983, Conidium and sporangiospore formation in pathogenic microfungi, in: Fungi Pathogenic for Humans and Animals, Part A, Biology (D. H. Howard, ed.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 437–524.Google Scholar
  31. Cole, G. T., Sun, S. H., and Huppert, M., 1982, Isolation and ultrastructural examination of conidial wall components of Coccidioides and Aspergillus, Scanning Electron Microsc. 1982(1V): 1677–1685.Google Scholar
  32. Cole, G. T., Pope, L. M., Huppert, M., Sun, S. H., and Starr, P., 1983, Ultrastructure and composition of conidial wall fractions of Coccidioides immitis, Exp. Mycol. 7:297–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cole, G. T., Chinn, J. W., Pope, L. M., and Starr, P., 1985a, Characterization and distribution of 3-0-methylmannose in Coccidioides immitis, in: Proc. 4th Int. Conf. on Coccidioidomycosis (H. Einstein and T. Catanzaro, eds.), Nat. Found. Infect. Dis. Publ., Washington, D. C., pp. 130–145.Google Scholar
  34. Cole, G. T., Pope, L. M., Huppert, M., Sun, S. H., and Starr, P., 1985b, Wall composition of different cell types of Coccidioides immitis, in: Proc. 4th Int. Conf on Coccidioidomycosis (H. Einstein and T. Catanzaro, eds.), Nat. Found. Infect. Dis. Publ, Washington, D. C., pp. 112–129.Google Scholar
  35. Collins, M. S., and Pappagianis, D., 1973, Effects of lysozyme and chitinase on the spherules of Coccidioides immitis and Histoplasma capsulatum, Contrib. Microbiol Immunol. 3:106–125.Google Scholar
  36. Collins, M. S., Pappagianis, D., and Yee, J., 1977, Enzymatic solubilization of precipitin and complement fixing antigen from endospores, spherules and spherule fraction of Coccidioides immitis, in: Coccidioidomycosis: Current Clinical and Diagnostic Status (L. Ajello, ed.), Symposia Specialists, Miami, pp. 429–444.Google Scholar
  37. Converse, J. L., 1955, Growth of spherules of Coccidioides immitis in a chemically defined liquid medium, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 90:709–711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Converse, J. L., 1956, Effect of physio-chemical environment on spherulation of Coccidioides immitis in a chemically defined medium, J. Bacteriol. 72:784–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Converse, J. L., 1957, Effect of surface active agents on endosporulation of Coccidioides immitis in a chemically defined medium, J. Bacteriol. 74:106–107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Cox, R. A., and Arnold, D. R., 1979, Immunoglobulin E in coccidioidomycosis, J. Immunol. 123:194–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Cox, R. A., and Larsh, H. W., 1974, Isolation of skin test-active preparations from yeastphase cells of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Infect. Immun. 10:42–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Cox, R. A., Huppert, M., Starr, P., and Britt, L. A., 1984, Reactivity of alkali-soluble, watersoluble cell wall antigen of Coccidioides immitis with anti-Coccidioides immunoglobulin M precipitin antibody, Infect. Immun. 43:502–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Deresinski, S. C., 1980, History of coccidioidomycosis: “Dust to dust,”, in: Coccidioidomycosis: A Text (D. A. Stevens, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  44. Dickson, E. C., 1937, “Valley fever” of the San Joaquin Valley and fungus Coccidioides, Calif West. Med. 47:151–155.Google Scholar
  45. Dickson, E. C., and Gifford, M. A., 1938, Coccidioides infection (coccidioidomycosis), Arch. Intern. Med. 62:853–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. DiSalvo, A. F., Terreni, A. A., and Wooten, A. K., 1981, Use of the exoantigen test to identify Blastomyces dermatititidis, Coccidioides immitis, and Histoplasma capsulatum in mixed cultures, J. Clin. Pathol. 75:825–826.Google Scholar
  47. Drutz, D. J. and Catanzaro, A., 1978, Coccidioidomycosis, Am. Rev. Resp. Dis. 117:559–585, 727-771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Drutz, D. J., and Huppert, M., 1983, Coccidioidomycosis: Factors affecting the host-parasite interaction, J. Infect. Dis. 147:372–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Emmons, C. W., 1967, Fungi similar to Coccidioides immitis, in: Coccidioidomycosis, University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 233–237.Google Scholar
  50. Fiese, M. J., 1958, Coccidioidomycosis, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  51. Flynn, N. M., Hoeprich, P. D., Kawachi, M. M., Lee, K. K., Lawrence, R. M., Goldstein, E., Jordan, G. W., Kundargi, R. S., and Wong, G. A., 1979, An unusual outbreak of windborne coccidioidomycosis, N. Engl. J. Med. 301:358–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Galgiani, J. N., Hayden, R., and Rayne, C. M., 1982, Leukocyte effects on the dimorphism of Coccidioides immitis, J. Infect. Dis. 146:56–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gifford, J., and Catanzaro, A., 1981, A comparison of coccidioidin and spherulin skin testing in the diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 124:440–444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gilardi, G. L., 1965, Nutrition of systemic and subcutaneous pathogenic fungi, Bacteriol Rev. 29:406–424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Goldschmidt, E. P., and Taylor, G. W., 1958, Composition of an extracellular polysaccharide fraction produced by Coccidioides immitis, in: Bacteriological Proceedings, American Society of Microbiology, Baltimore, p. 127.Google Scholar
  56. Hector, R., and Pappagianis, D., 1982, Enzymatic degradation of the walls of spherules of Coccidioides immitis, Exp. Mycol. 6:136–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hess, W. M., 1973, Ultrastructure of fungal spore germination, Shokubutsu Byogai Kenkyu 8:71–84.Google Scholar
  58. Hughes, S. J., 1971a, Percurrent proliferation in fungi, algae and mosses, Can. J. Bot. 49:215–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hughes, S. J., 1971b, On conidia of fungi and gemmae of algae, bryophytes and pterido-phytes, Can. J. Bot. 49:1319–1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Huppert, M., 1983, Antigens used for measuring immunological reactivity, in: Fungi Pathogenic for Humans and Animals, Part B, Pathogenicity and Detection: I (D. Howard, ed.), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 219–302.Google Scholar
  61. Huppert, M. and Bailey, J. W., 1963, Immunodiffusion as a screening test for coccidioidomycosis serology, Sabouraudia 2:284–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Huppert, M., and Sun, S. H., 1980a, Overview of mycology, and mycology of Coccidioides immitis, in: Coccidioidomycosis: A Text (D. A. Stevens, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 21–46.Google Scholar
  63. Huppert, M., and Sun, S. H., 1980b, Mycological diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis, in: Coccidioidomycosis: A Text (D. A. Stevens, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 47–61.Google Scholar
  64. Huppert, M., Sun, S. H., and Bailey, J. W., 1967, Natural variability in Coccidioides immitis, in: Coccidioidomycosis: Proceedings of the 2nd Symposium of Coccidioidomycosis (L. Ajello, ed.), University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 323–328.Google Scholar
  65. Huppert, M., Spratt, N. S., Vukovich, K. R., Sun, S. H., and Rice, E. H., 1978, Antigenic analysis of coccidioidin and spherulin determined by two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, Infect. Immun. 20:541–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Huppert, M., Adler, J. P., Rice, E. H., and Sun, S. H., 1979, Common antigens among systemic disease fungi analyzed by two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, Infect. Immun. 23:479–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Huppert, M., Cole, G. T., Sun, S. H., Drutz, D. J., Starr, P., Frey, C. L., and Harrison, J. L., 1983, The propagule as an infectious agent in coccidioidomycosis, in: Microbiology1983 (D. Schlessinger, ed.), American Society of Microbiology, Washington, D.C., pp. 262–267.Google Scholar
  68. Kabat, E. A., and Mayer, M. M., 1961, Experimental Immunochemistry, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois.Google Scholar
  69. Keuhn, H. H., Orr, G. F., and Gouri, R. G., 1961, A new and widely distributed species of Pseudoarachiotus, Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 14:215–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Klotz, S. A., Drutz, D. J., Huppert, M., Sun, S. H., and Demarsh, P. L., 1984, Critical role of CO2 in the morphogenesis of Coccidioides immitis in cell-free subcutaneous chambers, J. Infect. Dis. 150:127–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kwon-Chung, K. J., 1969, Coccidioides immitis: Cytological study on the formation of the arthrospores, Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 11:43–53.Google Scholar
  72. Lack, A. R., 1938, Spherule formation and endosporulation of the fungus Coccidioides in vitro, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 38:907–909.Google Scholar
  73. Lecara, G., Cox, R. A., and Simpson, R. B., 1983, Coccidioides immitis vaccine: potential of an alkali-soluble, water-soluble cell wall antigen, Infect. Immun. 39:437–475.Google Scholar
  74. Levine, H. B., 1961, Purification of the spherule-endospore phase of Coccidioides immitis, Sabouraudia 1:112–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Levine, H. B., Cobb, J. M., and Smith, C. E., 1960, Immunity to coccidioidomycosis induced in mice by purified spherule, arthrospore, and mycelial vaccines, Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 22:436–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Li, C. Y., 1983, Melanin-like pigment in zone lines of Phellinus weirii-colonized wood, Mycologia 75:562–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lones, G. W., and Peacock, C. L., 1960, Role of carbon dioxide in the dimorphism of Coccidioides immitis, J. Bacteriol. 79:308–309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lones, G. W., Peacock, C. L., and McNey, F. A., 1971, Factors affecting the reversion of Coccidioides immitis spherules to mycelium, Sabouraudia 9:287–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. MacNeal, W. J., and Taylor, R. M., 1914, Coccidioides immitis and coccidioidal granuloma, J. Med. Res. 30:261–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Maddy, K. T., 1958, The geographic distribution of Coccidioides immitis and possible ecologic implications, Ariz. Med. 15:178–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Maitra, S. K., and Ballou, C. E., 1974, Multiple forms of the methylmannose polysaccharide (MMP) from mycobacteria, Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 33:1452.Google Scholar
  82. McGinnis, M. R., 1980, Recent taxonomie developments and changes in medical mycology, Annv. Rev. Microbiol. 34:109–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. McNall, E. G., 1962, Cell wall constituents of pathogenic fungi, in: Fungi and Fungous Diseases (G. Dalidorf, ed.), Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Illinois, pp. 139–147.Google Scholar
  84. Nimmich, W., 1970, Occurence of 3-O-methylmannose in lipopolysaccharides of Klebsiella and Escherichia coli, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 215:189–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Olsberg, C. A., and Cox, R. A., 1983, Chemical composition of a mycelial and spherule cell wall antigen from Coccidioides immitis, Abstr. Annu. Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. F6:383.Google Scholar
  86. Ophiils, W., 1905a, Further observations on a pathogenic mould formerly described as a protozoan (Coccidioides immitis, Coccidioides pyogenes), J. Exp. Med. 6:443–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ophüls, W., 1905b, Coccidioidal granuloma, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 45:1201–1296.Google Scholar
  88. Ophüls, W., and Moffitt, H. C., 1900, A new pathogenic mould (formerly described as a protozoan: Coccidioides immitis pyogenes): Preliminary report, Philadel. Med. J. 5:1471–1472.Google Scholar
  89. Orr, G. F., 1972, Recovery of several arthroaleuriosporous fungi from mice following intraperitoneal inoculation, Tech. Rep., Desert Test Center, Dugway, DTC Proj. No. TN-72-542.Google Scholar
  90. Pappagianis, D., 1973, Coccidioidomycosis, in: Clinical Dermatology, Vol. 3 (D. J. Demis, R. L. Dobson, and J. McGuire, eds.), Harper and Row, Hagerstown, Maryland, pp. 1–11.Google Scholar
  91. Pappagianis, D., 1980, Epidemiology of coccidioidomycosis, in: Coccidioidomycosis: A Text (D. A. Stevens, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 63–85.Google Scholar
  92. Pappagianis, D., and Kobayashi, G. S., 1958, Production of extracellular polysaccharide in cultures of Coccidioides immitis, Mycologia 50:229–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Pappagianis, D., and Kobayashi, G. S., 1960, Approaches to the physiology of Coccidioides immitis, Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 89:109–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Pesanti, E. L., 1979, Role of surface wettability in phagocytosis of Neurospora crassa spores, J. Reticuloendothelial Soc. 26:549–552.Google Scholar
  95. Porter, J. F., Scheer, E. S., and Wheat, R. W., 1971, Characterization of 3-0-methylmannose from Coccidioides immitis, Infect. Immun. 4:660–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Posadas, A., 1892, Un nuevo caso de micosis fungoidea con psorospermias, An. Circ. Med. Argent. 15:585–597.Google Scholar
  97. Rao, S., Biddle, M., Balchum, O. J., and Robinson, J. L., 1971, Focal endemic coccidioidomycosis in Los Angeles County, Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 105:410–416.Google Scholar
  98. Raudaskoski, M., 1970, Occurrence of microtubules and microfilaments and origin of septa in dikaryotic hyphae of Schizophyllum commune, Protoplasma 70:415–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Raudaskoski, M., 1972, Occurrence of microtubules in the hyphae of Schizophyllum commune during intercellular nuclear migration, Arch. Microbiol. 86:91–100.Google Scholar
  100. Reiss, E., Huppert, M., and Cherniak, R., 1985, Characterization of protein and mannan polysaccharide antigens of yeasts, moulds and Actinomycetes, Curr. Top. Med. Mycol. 1 (in press).Google Scholar
  101. Reissig, J. L., Strominger, J. L., and Leloir, L., 1955, A modified colorimetric method for the estimation of N-acetylamino sugars, J. Biol. Chem. 217:959–966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Rixford, E., 1894, A case of protozoic dermatitis, Occident. Med. Times 8:704–707.Google Scholar
  103. Rixford, E., and Gilchrist, T. C., 1896, Two cases of protozoan (coccidioidal) infection of the skin and other organs, Johns Hopkins Hosp. Rep. 1:209–268.Google Scholar
  104. Roberts, R. L., and Szaniszlo, P. J., 1980, Yeast-phase cell cycle of the polymorphic fungus Wangiella dermatitidis, J. Bacteriol. 144:721–731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Robinow, C. F., 1981, Nuclear behavior in conidial fungi, in: Biology of Conidial Fungi, Vol. 2 (G. T. Cole and B. Kendrick, eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 357–393.Google Scholar
  106. Roessler, W. G., Herbst, E. J., McCullogh, W. G., Mills, R. C., and Brewer, C. R., 1946, Studies with Coccidioides immitis. 1. Submerged growth in liquid culture, J. Infect. Dis. 79:12–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Salkin, D., 1961, Pathogenetic classification of coccidioidomycosis, in: Transactions of the VIth Annual Meeting VA-Armed Forces Coccidioidomycosis Cooperative Study, pp. 30-34.Google Scholar
  108. San-Bias, G., 1982, The cell wall of fungal human pathogens: Its possible role in host-parasite relationships, Mycopathologia 79:159–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Selitrennikoff, C. P., 1976, Easily-wettable, a new mutant, Neurospora Newslett. 23:23.Google Scholar
  110. Sigler, L., and Carmichael, J. W., 1976, Taxonomy of Malbranchea and some other hyphomycetes with arthroconidia, Mycotaxon 4:369–488.Google Scholar
  111. Slater, M. L., 1978, Staining fungal nuclei with mithramycin, in: Methods in Cell Biology (D. Prescott, ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 135–140.Google Scholar
  112. Smith, C. E., 1942, Parallelism of coccidioidal and tuberculous infections, Radiology 38:643–668.Google Scholar
  113. Smith, C. E., 1943, Coccidioidomycosis, Med. Clin. North Am. 27:790–807.Google Scholar
  114. Smith, C. E., Beard, R. R., Rosenberger, H. G., and Whiting, E. G., 1946, Varieties of coccidioidal infection in relation to the epidemiology and control of the disease, Am. J. Public Health 36:1394–1402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Smith, H., 1977, Microbial surfaces in relation to pathogenicity, Bacteriol. Rev. 41:475–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Standard, P. G., and Kaufman, L., 1977, Immunological procedure for the rapid and specific identification of Coccidioides immitis cultures, J. Clin. Microbiol. 5:149–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Stewart, R. A., and Meyer, K. F., 1932, Isolation of Coccidioides immitis from soil, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 29:937–938.Google Scholar
  118. Sun, S. H., and Huppert, M., 1976, A cytological study of morphogenesis of Coccidioides immitis, Sabouraudia 14:185–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Sun, S. H., Huppert, M., and Vukovich, K. R., 1976, Rapid in vitro conversion and identification of Coccidioides immitis, J. Clin. Microbiol. 3:186–190.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sun, S. H., Sekhon, S. S., and Huppert, M., 1979, Electron microscopic studies of saprobic and parasitic forms of Coccidioides immitis, Sabouraudia 17:265–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Tarbet, J. E., and Breslau, A. M., 1953, Histochemical investigation of the spherule of Coccidioides immitis in relation to the host reaction, J. Infect. Dis. 92:183–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Thorne, W. S., 1894, A case of protozoic skin disease, Occident. Med. Times 8:703–704.Google Scholar
  123. Van Oss, C. J., 1978, Phagocytosis as a surface phenomenon, Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 32:19–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Walch, H. A., 1982, Coccidioides immitis, in: Microbiology A. (I. Braude, C. E. Davis, and J. Fierer, eds.), W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp. 658–664.Google Scholar
  125. Ward, E. R., Cox, R. A., Schmitt, J. A., Huppert, M., and Sun, S. H., 1975, Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to a cell wall fraction of the mycelial phase of Coccidioides immitis, Infect. Immun. 12:1093–1097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Weiner, M. H., 1983, Antigenemia detected in human coccidioidomycosis, J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:136–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Wernicke, R., 1892, Ueber einen Protozoenbefund bei Mycosis fungoides, Zentrabi. Bakteriol. 12:859–861.Google Scholar
  128. Wheat, R. W., and Su Chung, K. S., 1977, Antigenic fractions of Coccidioides immitis, in: Coccidioidomycosis: Current Clinical and Diagnostic Status (L. Ajello, ed.), Symposia Specialists, Miami, pp. 453–460.Google Scholar
  129. Wheat, R. W., and Scheer, E., 1977, Cell walls of Coccidioides immitis: Neutral sugars of aqueous alkaline extract polymers, Infect. Immun. 15:340–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Wheat, R. W., Tritschler, C., Conant, N. F., and Lowe, E. P., 1977, Comparison of Coccidioides immitis arthrospore, mycelium and spherule cell walls, and influence of growth medium on mycelial cell wall composition, Infect. Immun. 17:91–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Wheat, R. W., Su Chung, K. S., Ornellas, E. P., and Scheer, E. R., 1978, Extraction of skin test activity from Coccidioides immitis mycelia by water, perchloric acid and aqueous phenol extraction, Infect. Immun. 19:152–159.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Wheat, R. W., Woodruff, W. W., and Haltiwanger, R. S., 1983, Occurrence of antigenic (species-specific?) partially 3-O-methylated heteromannans in cell wall and soluble cellular (nonwall) components of Coccidioides immitis mycelia, Infect. Immun. 41:728–734.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Garry T. Cole
    • 1
  • S. H. Sun
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BotanyThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  2. 2.Mycology Research LaboratoryVeterans Administration HospitalSan AntonioUSA

Personalised recommendations