Cellular and Animal Models

  • R. J. M. Fry
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series


This segment of the report of the proceedings of the National Cancer Institute symposium is devoted to the presentations about studies with in vitro cell systems, in vitro-in vivo systems, and whole animals including humans. The NCI symposium was designed to cover many aspects of carcinogenesis so that the similarities and differences of the manner in which ionizing radiation and chemical carcinogens initiate cancer and complete its expression could be examined. The hope was that the identification of both the common and the clearly distinct features would help elucidate mechanisms and indicate areas for new research.


Xeroderma Pigmentosum Chemical Carcinogenesis Carcinogenic Agent Tracheal Cell Syrian Hamster Embryo 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References Given by Speakers

Comparative Mechanism of Carcinogenesis fry Radiation and Chemcals: Implications of the Human Experience — A. C. Upton

  1. International Agency for Research on Cancer: Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Humans, 1982, IARC Monographs Supplement 4, IARC, Lyon.Google Scholar
  2. National Research Council, Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, 1980, “The Effects on populations of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation,” National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  3. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, 1977. Report to the General Assembly, with Annexes, 32 Session, Suppl. 40 (A/32/40), united Nations, New York.Google Scholar
  4. Upton, A. C., 1981, Principles of Cancer Biology: Etiology and Prevention, in: “Principles and Practices of Oncology,” pp. 33–58, V. T. DeVita, S. Hellman, and S. A. Rosenberg, eds., J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  5. Weinstein, I. B., 1980, Molecular and cellular mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis, in: “Cancer and Chemotherapy,” Vol. I, pp. 169–196, S. T. Crooke, and A. W. Prestako, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar

Chemicals vs. Ionizing Radiation in Carcinogenesis: Human Experience — R. W. Miller

  1. Miller, R. W., 1978, Environmental causes of cancer in childhood, Ady. Pedjatr., 25:97.Google Scholar
  2. Miller, R. W., 1979. Transplacental chemical carcinogenesis in man, Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr., 52:13.Google Scholar
  3. Miller, R. W., 1982, Radiation effects: Highlights of a meeting, J. Pediatr., 101:887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Miller, R. W., and Beebe, G. W., Radiation leukemia and lymphoma in man, in: “Radiation Carcinogenesis,” A. C. Upton, ed., Elsevier North-Holland, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  5. Miller, R. W., and Boice, J. D., Jr., Radiogenic cancer after prenatal or childhood exposure, in: “Radiation Carcinogenesis,” A. C. Upton, ed., Elsevier North-Holland, New York, in press.Google Scholar
  6. Tomatis, L., Agthe, C., Bartsch, H., Huff, J., Montesano, R., Saracci, R., Walker, E., and Wilbourn, J., 1978, Evaluation of the carcinogenicity of chemicals, Cancer Res.. 38:877.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Mechanisms of Carcinogenesis in vivo — F. J. Burns

  1. Burns, F. J., Albert, R. E., Altshuler, B., and Morris, E., 1983, Approach to risk assessment for genotoxic carcinogens based on data from the mouse skin initiation-promotion model, Environ. Health Perspect., 500:309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Burns, F. J., Strickland, P., Vanderlaan, M., and Albert, R. E., 1978, Rat skin tumors following single and fractionated exposures to proton radiation, Radiat. Res., 74:152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burns, F. J., and Vanderlaan, M., 1975, Split-dose recovery for radiation-induced tumors in rat skin, Int. J. Radiat. Biol., 32:135.Google Scholar
  4. Druckery, H., 1967, Quantitative aspects of chemical carcinogenesis, in: “Potential Carcinogenic Hazards from Drugs Evaluation of Risks,” VICC Monograph Series, Vol. 7, pp. 60–78, R. Truhart, ed., Springer-Verlag, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Whittemore, A. S., 1978, Quantitative theories of oncogenesis, in.: “Advances in Cancer Research,” Vol. 27, pp. 55–88, G. Klein and S. Weinhouse, eds., Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar

In Vitro Studies with Radiation and Chemicals — M. M. Elkind

  1. Gray, L. H., 1965, Radiation biology and cancer, in: “Cellular Radiation Biology,” pp. 7–25, The Williams & Wilkins Company, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  2. Han, A., and Elkind, M. M., 1982, Enhanced transformation of mouse 10T1/2 cells by 12–0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate following exposure to X-rays or to fission spectrum neutrons, Cancer Res., 42:477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Han, A., Hill, C. K., and Elkind, M. M., 1980, Repair of cell killing and neoplastic transformation at reduced dose rates of Co gamma-rays, Cancer Res.. 40:3328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Maher, V. M., and McCormick, J. J., 1976, Effect of DNA repair on the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of UV irradiation and chemical carcinogens in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum cells, in: “Biology of Radiation Carcinogenesis,” pp. 129–145, J. M. Yuhas, R. W. Tennant, J. D. Regan, eds., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  5. Susuki, F., Han, A., Lankas, G. R., Utsumi, H., and Elkind, M. M., 1981, Spectral dependencies of killing, mutation, and transformation in mammalian cells and their relevance to hazards caused by solar ultraviolet radiation, Cancer Res., 41:4916.Google Scholar

Stages in Radiation and Chemical Carcinogenesis — H. C. Pitot

  1. Bohrman, J. S., 1983, Identification and assessment of tumor-promoting and cocarcinogenic agents: State-of-the-art in Vitro methods, CRC Critt Rey. Toxicol., 11:121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boutwell, R. K., 1974, Function and mechanism of promoters of carcinogensis, CRC Crit. Rev. Toxicol., 2:419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Emerst, I., and Cerutti, P. A., 1982, Tumor promoter phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate induces a clastogenic factor in human lymphocytes, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 79:7509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Pitot, H. C., 1984, Neoplastic development and human cancer, Cancer Surveys. 2(4): 519.Google Scholar

Experimental Lung Cancer Induced in Hamsters bv Ionizing Radiation and Chemical Carcinogens — J. B. Little

  1. Kennedy, A. R., and Little, J. B., 1974.Transport and localization of benzo(a.)pyrene-hematite and 210Po-hematite in the hamster lung following intratracheal instillation, Cancer Res.. 34:1344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Kennedy, A. R., and Little, J. B., 1975, Localization of polycyclic hydrocarbon carcinogens in the lung following intratracheal instillation in gelatin solution, Cancer Res.. 35:1563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Kennedy, A. R., Worcester, J., and Little, J. B., 1977- Deposition and localization of polonium-210 intratrachealy instilled in the hamster lung as determined by autoradiography of freeze-dried sections, Radiat. Res., 69:553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Little, J. B., and Kennedy, A. R., 1979, Evaluation of alpha radiation-induced respiratory carcinogenesis in Syrian hamsters: total dose and dose rate, Prog. Exp. Tumor Res., 24:356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Little, J. B., Kennedy, A. R., and McGandy, R. B., 1975, Lung cancer induced in hamsters by low doses of alpha radiation from polonium-210, Science, 188:737.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Little, J. B., Kennedy, A. R., and McGandy, R. B., 1978, Effect of dose distribution on the induction of experimental lung cancer by alpha radiation, Health Phvs., 35:595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Little, J. B., McGandy, R. B., and Kennedy, A. R., 1978, Interactions between polonium-210 alpha radiation, benzo(a)pyrene and 0.9% NaCl solution instillations in the induction of experimental lung cancer, Cancer Res. 38:1929.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Little, J. B., and O’Toole, W. F., 1974, Respiratory tract tumors in hamsters induced by benzo(a)pyrene and polonium-210 alpha radiation, Cancer Res., 34:3026.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Shami, S. G., Thibideau, L. A., Kennedy, A. R., and Little, J. B., 1982, Proliferative and morphological changes in the pulmonary epithelium of the Syrian golden hamster during carcinogenesis initiated by Po alpha-radiation, Cancer Res., 42:1405.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Induction of In Vitro Transformation by Chemical and Radiation — A. R. Kennedy

  1. Barrett, J. C., Hesterberg, T. W., and Thomassen, D., Use of cell transformation systems for carcinogenicity testing and mechanistic studies of carcinogenesis, Pharmacol. Rev., in press.Google Scholar
  2. Bertram, J. S., Mordan, L. J., Domanska-Janik, K., and Bernacki, R. J., 1982, Inhibition of in vitro neoplastic transformation by retinoids, in: “Molecular Interrelationships of Nutrition and Cancer,” pp. 315–335, M. S. Arnott, J. Van Eys, and Y.-M. Wang, eds., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Borek, C., 1982, Radiation oncogenesis in cell culture, Adv. Cancer Res., 37:159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. DiPaolo, J. A., 1983, Relative difficulties in transforming human and animal cells in vitro, J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 70:3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Elkind, M. M., Han, A., Hill, C. K., and Buonaguro, F., 1983, Repair mechanisms in radiation-induced cell transformation, in: “Proceedings of 7th International Congress of Radiation Research,” pp. 33–42, J. J. Broerse, G. W. Barendson, H. B. Kal, A. J. Van der Kogel, eds., Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  6. Hall, E. J., and Miller, R. C., 1981, The how and why of in vitro oncogenic transformation, Radiat. Res., 87:208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Heidelberg, C., 1980, Mammalian cell transformation and mammalian cell mutagenesis in vitro, J. Exp. Pathol. Toxicol., 3:69.Google Scholar
  8. Huberman, E., 1978, Mutagenesis and cell transformation of mammalian cells in culture by chemical carcinogens, J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol., 2(1):29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Kakunaga, T., 1981, Cell transformation as a system for studying mechanisms of carcinogenesis, in: “Gann Monograph on Cancer Research,” Vol. 27, pp. 231–242, “Mutation, Promotion and Transformation In Vitro,” Japan Scientific Society, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  10. Kennedy, A. R., 1982, Antipain, but not cycloheximide, suppresses radiation transformation when present for only one day at five days postirradiation, Carcinogenesis, 3:1093.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kennedy, A. R., 1984, Promotion and other interactions between agents in the induction of transformation in vitro in fibroblast, in: “Mechanisms of Tumor Promotion,” Vol. III, “Tumor Promotion and Cocarcinogenesis In Vitro,” pp. 13–55, T. J. Slaga, ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  12. Kennedy, A. R., Prevention of radiation-induced transformation in vitro, in: “Vitamins, Nutrition and Cancer,” K. N. Prasad, and J. V. Sutherland, eds., S. Karger AG, Basel, in press.Google Scholar
  13. Kennedy, A. R., Cairns, J., and Little, J. B., 1984, The timing of the steps in transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells by X-irradiation, Nature(London), 307:85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kennedy, A. R., Fox, M., Murphy, G., and Little, J. B., 1980, Relationship between X-ray exposure and malignant transformation in C3H 10T1/2 cells, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 77:7262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kennedy, A. R., and Little, J. B., 1980, An investigation of the mechanism for the enhancement of radiation transformation in vitro by TPA, Carcinogenesis. 1:1039.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kennedy, A. R., Murphy, G., and Little, J. B., 1980, The effect of time and duration of exposure to 12–0-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on X-ray transformation of C3H/10T1/2 cells, Cancer Res., 40:1915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Little, J. B., 1981, Radiation transformation in Vitro: Implications for mechanisms of carcinogenesis, in: “Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology,” Vol. I, “Mammalian Cell Transformation by Chemical Carcinogens,” pp. 383–426, N. Mishra, V. Dunkel, and M. Mehlman, eds., Senate Press, Inc., New Jersey.Google Scholar
  18. Sivak, A., Charest, M. C., Rudenko, L., Silveira, D. M., Simons, I., and Wood, A. M., 1981, BALB/c-3T3 cells as target cells for chemically induced neoplastic transformation, in: “Advances in Modern Environmental Toxicology,” Vol. I, “Mammalian Cell Transformation by Chemical Carcinogens,” pp. 133–180, N. Mishra, V. Dunkel, and M. Mehlman, eds., Senate Press, Inc., New Jersey.Google Scholar
  19. Ts’o, P. O. P., 1980, Neoplastic transformation, somatic mutation and differentiation, in: “Carcinogenesis: Fundamental Mechanisms and Environmental Effects,” pp. 297–310, B. Pullman, P. O. P. Ts’o, and H. Gelboin, eds., D. Reidel Publishing Co., Hingham, MA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Yang, T. C. H., and Tobias, C. A., 1982, Radiation and cell transformation in vitro, Adv. Biol. Med. Phvs., 17:417.Google Scholar
  21. Yavelow, J., Finlay, T. H., Kennedy, A. R., and Troll, W., 1983. Bowman-Birk soybean protease inhibitor as an anticarcinogen, Cancer Res., 43:2454.Google Scholar

Neoplastic Development After Exposure to Radiation and Chemical Carcinogens — R. L. Ullrich

  1. Ethier, S. P., and Ullrich, R. L., 1981, Detection of ductal dysplasia in mammary outgrowths derived from carcinogen-treated virgin female BALB/c mice, Cancer Res., 41:1808.Google Scholar
  2. Terzaghi, M., and Nettesheim, P., 1979, Dynamics of neoplastic development in carcinogen-exposed tracheal mucosa, Cancer Res., 39:4003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Terzaghi, M., Klein-Szanto, A., and Nettesheim, P., 1983, Effect of the promoter TPA on the evolution of carcinogen-altered cell populations in tracheas initiated with DMBA, Cancer Res,, 43:1461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ullrich, R. L., 1980, Interaction of radiation and chemical carcinogens, in: “Carcinogenesis — A Comprehensive Survey,” Vol. 5, “Modifiers of Chemical Carcinogenesis: An Approach to the Biochemical Mechanisms and Prevention,” pp. 169–184, T. J. Slaga, ed., Raven Press, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. J. M. Fry
    • 1
  1. 1.Biology DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA

Personalised recommendations