Interleukin 1, Interferon Gamma, and the Modulation of Macrophage-T-Cell Interactions
Activation of clones of T cells by the specific antigen to which they are reactive requires that the antigen be processed (i.e., metabolized and displayed on the cell surface) by antigen-presenting cells (APCs; reviewed in Ref. 1). While the macrophage has been the most thoroughly studied of APCs, over the past few years it has been determined that a variety of cell types may function in this capacity. We now know that dendritric cells, B cells, and endothelial and Langerhans cells are all capable of antigen presentation, although this may not be a constitutive property of each cell type.1 The three basic properties that define the APCs are: (1) the ability to process antigen, usually by an endocytic route involving lysosomal function; (2) the expression of class II MHC products (the Ia glycoproteins), in association with which the processed antigenic determinant is recognized by the T-cell antigen receptor; and (3) the production of interleukin 1 (IL-1), which provides a requisite signal during T-cell activation. Antigen-induced activation is accompanied by a series of changes in the resting T cell, paramount among which is the induction of receptors for, and secretion of, interleukin 2 (IL-2). A variety of lymphokines that is important for immune function is also produced by the activated T cell, and one of them, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), plays a key role in macrophage activation. The end result of this antigen-induced activation is the selective proliferation of the antigen-reactive T cells.
KeywordsMacrophage Population High Molecular Weight Form Immune Interferon Mixed Leukocyte Culture Endocytic Route
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