Advertisement

GABA and Glycine: Ion Channel Mechanisms

  • Jeffery L. Barker

Abstract

It is now evident that the naturally occurring neutral amino acids γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine are present in many, if not all, nervous systems and that these substances mediate specific types of intercellular communication. Although their actions in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) have been studied for 30 years, it is only recently that some understanding of the membrane mechanisms underlying the transmitter actions of these substances has been achieved. Chapter 2 reviews the cellular physiology of GABA and glycine based upon studies in vivo, in acutely prepared slices of CNS tissue, and in peripheral ganglia.

Keywords

Current Response Neutral Amino Acid Membrane Conductance Spinal Neuron Central Nervous System Tissue 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barker, J. L., and McBurney, R. N., 1979a, GABA and glycine may share the same conductance channel on cultured mammalian neurones, Nature 277: 234–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barker, J. L., and McBurney, R. N., 1979, Phenobarbitone modulation of post-synaptic GABA receptor function on cultured mammalian neurons, Proc. R. Soc. Land. B 206: 318–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barker, J. L., and Ransom, B. R., 1978, Amino acid pharmacology of mammalian central neurons grown in tissue culture, J. Physiol. (Lund.) 280: 331–354.Google Scholar
  4. Barker, J. L., Gruol, D. L., Huang, L. M., MacDonald, J. F., and Smith, T. G., 1980a, Peptides: Three forms of chemical excitability on cultured mouse spinal neurons, Neuropeptides 1: 163–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barker, J. L., MacDonald, J. F., Mathers, D. A., McBurney, R. N., and Oertel, W., 1980b, GABA receptor functions in cultured mouse spinal neurons, in: Amino Acid Neurotransmitters ( F. V. DeFeudis and P. Mandel, eds.), Raven Press, New York, pp. 281–293.Google Scholar
  6. Barker, J. L., McBurney, R. N., and MacDonald, J. F., 1982, Fluctuation analysis of neutral amino acid responses in cultured mouse spinal neurons, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 322: 365–387.Google Scholar
  7. Barker, J. L., McBurney, R. N., and Mathers, D. A., 1983, Convulsant-induced depression of amino acid responses in cultured mouse spinal neurons studied under voltage clamp, Br. J. Pharmacol. 80: 619–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blankenship, J. E., Wachtel, H., and Kandel, E. R., 1971, Ionic mechanisms of excitatory, inhibitory, and dual-synaptic actions mediated by an identified interneuron in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia, J. Neurophysiol. 34: 76–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Caserta, M. T., and Barker, J. L., 1983, Development of glutamic acid decarboxylase immunoreactivity in mouse spinal cord cultures, Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 9: 7.Google Scholar
  10. Choi, D. W., Farb, D. H., and Fischbach, G. D., 1981, Chlordiazeperoxide selectively potentiates GABA conductance of spinal cord and sensory neurons in cell culture, J. Neurophysiol. 45: 621–631.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Collingridge, G., Gage, P. W., and Robertson, B., 1984, Inhibitory postsynaptic currents in rat hippocampal neurons, J. Physiol. (Lund.) 356: 551–564.Google Scholar
  12. Cull-Candy, S., 1983, Glutamate-and GABA-receptor channels at the locust nerve-muscle junction: noise analysis and single-channel recording, Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 48: 269–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dichter, M., 1980, Physiological identification of GABA as the inhibitory transmitter for mammalian cortical neurons in cell culture, Brain Res. 190: 111–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dionne, V., and Stevens, C. F., 1975, Voltage dependance of agonist effectiveness at the frog neuromuscular function: Resolution of a paradox, J. Physiol. 251: 245–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Dudel, J., Finger, W., and Stettmeier, H., 1980, Inhibitory synaptic channels activated by GABA in crayfish muscle, Pflügers Arch. 387: 143–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gold, M. R., and Martin, A. R., 1983a, Analysis of glycine-activated inhibitory post-synaptic channels in brainstem neurons of the lamprey, J. Physiol. (Land.) 342: 88–98.Google Scholar
  17. Gold, M. R., and Martin, A. R., 1983b, Characteristics of inhibitory postsynaptic currents in brainstem neurons of the lamprey, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 342: 99–117.Google Scholar
  18. Hamill, O. P., Marty, A., Neher, E., Sakmann, B., and Sigworth, F. J., 1981, Improved patch-clamp techniques for high resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches, Pflügers Arch. 391: 85–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hamill, O. P., Bormann, J., and Sakmann, B., 1983, Activation of multiple-conductance state chloride channels in spinal neurons by glycine and GABA, Nature 305: 805–808.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jackson, M. B., Lecar, H., Mathers, D. A., and Barker, J. L., 1982, Single channel currents activated by GABA, muscimol, and (—)pentobarbital in cultured mouse spinal neurons, J. Neurosci. 2: 889–894.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Katz, B., and Miledi, R., 1972, The statistical nature of the acetylcholine potential and its molecular components, J. Physiol. 224: 665–699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Levitan, H., and Tauc, L., 1972, Acetylcholine receptors: Topographic distribution and pharmacological properties of two receptor types on a single molluscan neuron, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 222: 537–558.Google Scholar
  23. Levitan, H., and Tauc, L., 1975, Polyphasic synaptic potentials in the ganglion of the mollusc, Navanax, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 248: 35–44.Google Scholar
  24. Mathers, D. A., and Barker, J. L., 1982, Chemically induced ion channels in nerve cell membranes. Int. Rev. Neurobiol. 23: 1–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Neher, E., and Stevens, C. F., 1977, Conductance fluctuations and ionic pores in membranes. Annu. Rev. Biophys. Bioeng. 6: 345–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Onodera, K., and Takeuchi, A., 1979, An analysis of the inhibitory post-synaptic current in the voltage-clamped crayfish muscle, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 286: 265–282.Google Scholar
  27. Redmann, G. A., Lecar, H., and Barker, J. L., 1983, Single muscimol-activated ion channels show voltage-sensitive kinetics in cultured mouse spinal neurons, Soc. Neurosci. Abst. 9: 507.Google Scholar
  28. Redmann, G., Lecar, H., and Barker, J. L., 1984, Diazepam increases GABA-activated single channel burst duration in cultured mouse spinal neurons, Biophys. J. 45: 386a.Google Scholar
  29. Sakmann, B., and Neher, E., 1983, Single-Channel Recording, Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  30. Sakmann, B., Hamill, O. P.. and Borman, J., 1983, Patch-clamp measurements of elementary chloride currents activated by the putative inhibitory transmitters GABA and glycine in mammalian spinal neurons, J. Neural Transm. (Suppl.) 1: 83–95.Google Scholar
  31. Segal, M., and Barker, J. L., 1984a, Rat hippocampal neurons in culture: properties of GABAactivated Cl-ion conductance, J. Neurophysiol. 52: 500–515.Google Scholar
  32. Segal, M., and Barker, J. L., 1984b, Rat hippocampal neurons in culture: Voltage clamp analysis of inhibitory connections, J. Neurophysiol. 52: 469–487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Study, R. E., and Barker, J. L., 1981, Diazepam and (—)pentobarbital: Fluctuation analysis reveals different mechanisms for potentiation of GABA responses in cultured central neurons, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78: 7180–7184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wachtel, H., and Kandel, E. R., 1971, Conversion of synaptic excitation to inhibition at a dual chemical synapse, J. Neurophysiol. 34: 56–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jeffery L. Barker

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations