Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone

  • Yuh Nung Jan
  • Lily Yeh Jan


Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH), originally isolated from mammalian hypothalami, has well-established functions in mediating hypothalamic control of pituitary hormone release (Blackwell and Guillemin, 1973; Schally et al., 1973). Parvicellular hypothalamic neurons that contain LHRH project to portal vessels originating in the median eminence. The LHRH peptides released into the portal capillaries are carried to the anterior pituitary by the hypophyseal portal circulation to trigger the release of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. Besides functioning as a neuroendocrine hormone, LHRH-like peptides may serve other functions in the central nervous system and in the periphery. Detailed analyses of LHRH action at the cellular level have been possible in the peripheral nervous system (sympathetic ganglia) because of its easy access to experimentation. For this reason, much of the attention concerning the cellular action of LHRH will be directed to studies of the peripheral nervous system, while knowledge concerning the distribution and function of LHRH at the central nervous system will only be summarized briefly in this chapter.


Sympathetic Neuron Sympathetic Ganglion Accessory Olfactory Bulb Luteinizing Hormone Release Hormone Analog Preganglionic Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, P. R., and Brown, D. A., 1980, Luteinizing hormone-releasing factor and muscarinic agonists act on the same voltage-sensitive K* current in bull frog sympathetic neurons, Br. J. Pharmacol. 68: 353–355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, P. R., Brown, D. A., and Constanti, A., 1982, Pharmacological inhibition of the M-current, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 332: 223–262.Google Scholar
  3. Blackwell, R. E., and Guillemin, R., 1973, Hypothalamic control of adenohypophyseal secretion, Am. Rev. Physiol. 35: 357–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Burgus, R., Butcher, M., Amoss, M., Ling, N., Monahan, M., River, J., Fellows, R., Blackwell, R., Vale, W., and Guillemin, R., 1972, Primary structure of the hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing factor (LRF) of ovine origin, Proc, Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69: 278–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Eiden, L. E., and Eskay, R. L., 1980, Characterization of LRF-like immunoreactivity in the frog sympathetic ganglia: Nonidentity with LRH decapeptide, Neuropeptides 1: 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eiden, L. E., Loumaye, E., Sherwood, N., and Eskay, R. L., 1982, Two chemically and immunologically distinct forms of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone are differentially expressed in frog neural tissue, Peptides 3: 323–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Elde, R., and Hökfelt, T., 1979, Localization of hypophysiotrophic peptides and other biologically active peptides within brain, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 41: 587–602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jan, L. Y., and Jan Y. N., 1982, Peptidergic transmission in sympathetic ganglia of the frog, J. Physiol. (Lond.) 327: 219–246.Google Scholar
  9. Jan, L. Y., Jan, Y. N., and Brownfield, M. S., 1980a, Peptidergic transmitters in synaptic boutons of sympathetic ganglia, Nature 288: 380–382.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jan, Y. N., and Jan, L. Y., 1983, Coexistence and corelease of cholinergic and peptidergic transmitters in frog sympathetic ganglia, Fed. Proc. 42: 2929–2933.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Jan, Y. N., Jan, L. Y., and Kuffler, S. W., 1979, A peptide as a possible transmitter in sympathetic ganglia of the frog, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 76: 1501–1505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jan, Y. N., Jan, L. Y, and Kuffler, S. W., 1980b, Further evidence for peptidergic transmission in sympathetic ganglia, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 77: 5008–5012.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jan, Y. N., Bowers, C. W., Branton, D., Evans, L., and Jan, L. Y., 1983. Peptides in neuronal function: Studies using frog autonomic ganglia, in: Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 48: 363–374.Google Scholar
  14. Jones, S. W., Adams, P. R., Brownstein, M. J., and Rivier, J. E., 1984, Teleost luteninizing hormone-releasing hormone: action on bullfrog sympathetic ganglia is consistent with role as neurotransmitter, J. Neurosci. 4: 420–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Katayama, Y., and Nishi, S., 1977, The ionic mechanism of the late slow EPSP in amphibian sympathetic ganglion cells, Proc Int. Union Physiol. Sci. 13: 371.Google Scholar
  16. Katayama, Y., and North, R. A., 1978, Does substance P mediate slow sympathetic excitation within the myenteric plexus? 274: 387–388.Google Scholar
  17. Katayama, Y., and Nishi, S., 1982, Voltage-clamp analysis of peptidergic slow depolarization in bullfrog sympathetic ganglion cells, J. Physiol. (Lund.) 333: 305–313.Google Scholar
  18. Kelly, J. S., and Renaud, L. P., 1978, Pharmacology of the hypothalamic neurons, in: Pharmacology of the Hypothalamus (Cox, Morris, and Weston, eds.) University Park Press, Baltimore, pp. 63–104.Google Scholar
  19. King, J. A., and Millar, R. P., 1982a, Structure of chicken hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone. I. Structural determination on partially purified material, J. Biol. Chem. 25: 10722–10728.Google Scholar
  20. King, J. A. and Millar, R. P., 1982b, Structure of chicken hypothalamic luteinizing hormonereleasing hormone. II. Isolation and characterization, J. Biol. Chem. 25: 10729–10732.Google Scholar
  21. Koslowski, G. P., and Hostetter, G., 1979, Cellular and subcellular localization and behavioral effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the rat, in: Central Nervous System Effects of Hypothalamic Hormones and Other Peptides, 1st ed., Raven Press, New York, pp. 138–153.Google Scholar
  22. Krey, L. C., and Silverman, A. J., 1983, Leuteinizing hormone releasing hormone, in: Brain Peptides ( D. T. Krieger, M. J. Brownstein, J. B., Martin, eds.), John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 687–709.Google Scholar
  23. Kuffler, S. W., and Sejnowski, T. J., 1983, Peptidergic and muscarinic excitation at amphibian sympathetic synapses, J. Physiol. (Lund.) 341: 257–278.Google Scholar
  24. Matsuo, H., Baba, Y., Nair, R., Arimura, A., and Schally, A., 1971. Structure of the procine LH-and FSH-releasing hormone. I. Proposed amino acid sequence, Biochem Biophys. Res. Commun. 43: 1334–1339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Matthew, W., Tsaveler, L., and Reichardt, L. I., 1981. Identification of a synaptic vesicle specific membrane protein that is widely distributed in neuronal and neurosecretory tissue, J. Cell Biol. 91: 257–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McCann, S. M., 1982, Physiology and pharmacology of LHRH and somatostatin: Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 22: 491–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Miyamoto, K., Hasegawa, Y., Minegishi, T., Nomura, M., Takahashi, Y., Igarashi, M., Kanagawa, K., and Matsuo, H., 1982. Isolation and characterization of chicken hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, Biochem, Biophys. Res. Commun. 107: 820–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Moss, R. L., 1977, Role of hypophysiotropic neurohormones in mediating neural and behavioral events, Fed. Proc. 36: 1978–1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Moss, R. L., 1979, Actions of hypothalamic-hypophysiotropic hormones on the brain, Annu. Rev. Physiol. 41: 617–631.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nishi, S., and Koketsu, K., 1960, Electrical properties and activities of single sympathetic neurons of frogs, J. Cell Comp. Physiol. 55: 15–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nishi, S., and Koketsu, K., 1968, Early and late after discharges of amphibian sympathetic ganglion cells, J. Neurophysiol. 31: 717–728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Phillips, H. S., Ho, B. T., and Linner, J. G., 1982. Ultrastructural localization of LH-RH-im- munoreactive synapses in hamster accessory olfactory bulb, Brain Res. 246: 193–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rivier, J., and Vale, W., 1978. [D-pGlu’, D-Phe2, Trp3 8]-LRF. A potent luteinizing hormone releasing factor antagonist in vitro and inhibitor of ovulation in the rat, Life Sci. 23: 869–876.Google Scholar
  34. Rivier, J., Rivier, C., Branton, D., Millar, R., Spiess, J., and Vale, W., 1981, HPLC purification of ovine CRF, rat extra hypothalamic brain somatostatin and frog brain GnRH, in: Proceedings of the Seventh American Peptide Symposium (D. H. Rich and E. Gross, eds. ), pp. 771–776.Google Scholar
  35. Schally, A. V., Arimura, H., and Kostin, A. J., 1973, Hypothalamic regulatory hormones, Science 179: 341–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Schally, A. V., and Coy, D. H., 1977, Stimulatory and inhibitory analogs of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), in: Hypothalamic Peptide Hormones and Pituitary Regulation ( J. C. Porter, ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 99–121.Google Scholar
  37. Sharpe, R. M., Fraser, H. M., Cooper, I., and Romerts, F. F., 1981. Sertoli-Leydig cell communication via an LHRH-like factor, Nature 290: 785–787.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sherwood, N., Eiden, L., Brownstein, M., Spiess, J., Rivier, J., and Vale, W., 1983, Characterization of a teleost gonadotropin-releasing hormone, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 80: 2794–2798.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shivers, B. D., Harlan, R. E., and Pfaff, D. W., 1983. Reproduction: The central nervous system role of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, in: Brain Peptides ( D. T. Krieger, M. J. Brownstein, and J. B. Martin, eds.), John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp. 389–412.Google Scholar
  40. Shulman, J. A., and Weight, F., 1976, Synaptic transmission: Long-lasting potentiation by a postsynaptic mechanism, Science 194: 1437–1439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Stell, W. K., Walker, S. E., Chohan, K. S., and Ball, A. K., 1984, The goldfish nervus terminalis: A luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide immunoreactive olfactoretinal pathway, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 940–944.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Tosaka, T., Chichibu, S., and Libet, B., 1968, Intracellular analysis of slow inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic potentials in sympathetic ganglia of the frog, J. Neurophysiol. 31: 396–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Tsunoo, A., Konishi, S., and Otsuka, M., 1982, Substance P as an excitatory transmitter of primary afferent neurons in guinea-pig sympathic ganglia, Neurosci. 7: 2025–2037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vale, W., Rivier, C., Brown, M., and Rivier, J., 1977. Pharmacology of thyrotropin releasing factor (TRF), luteinizing hormone releasing factor (LRF), and somatostatin in Hypothalamic Peptide Hormones and Pituitary Regulation (J. C. Porter, Ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 123–156.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yuh Nung Jan
  • Lily Yeh Jan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations