Advertisement

The Patient pp 177-207 | Cite as

Confusion, Delirium, and Dementia: Organic Brain Syndromes and the Elderly Patient

  • Hoyle Leigh
  • Morton F. Reiser

Keywords

Psychotropic Drug Neurofibrillary Tangle Senile Plaque Senile Dementia Depressive Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Recommended Reading

  1. Bartus RT, Dean RL III, Beer B, et al.: The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction. Science 217:408–417, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck JC, Benson DF, Scheibel AB, et al.: Dementia in the elderly: The silent epidemic. Ann Intern Med 97:231–241, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Engel GL, Romano J: Delirium, a syndrome of cerebral insufficiency. J Chronic Dis 9:260–277, 1959.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Schneck MK, Reisberg B, Ferris SH: An overview of current concepts of Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Psychiatry 139:165–173, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Sinex EM, Merrill CR (ed): Alzheimer’s Disease, Down’s Syndrome, and Aging. Ann NY Acad Sci 396, 1982.Google Scholar
  6. Thompson TL II, Moran MG, Nies AS: Psychotropic drug use in the elderly: 2-part article. N Engl J Med 303:134–138, 1983.Google Scholar
  7. Thompson TL II, Moran MG, Nies AS: Psychotropic drug use in the elderly: 2-part article. N Engl J Med 303:194–199, 1983.Google Scholar

References

  1. Albert ML, Feldman RG, Willis AL: The “subcortical dementia” of progressive supranuclear palsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 37: 121–130, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bartus RT, Dean RL, Beer B, et al.: The cholinergic hypothesis of geriatric memory dysfunction. Science 217: 408–417, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck JC, Benson DF, Scheibel AB, et al.: Dementia in the elderly: The silent epidemic. Ann Intern Med 97: 231–241, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bowen DM, Spillane JA, Curzon B, et al.: Accelerated ageing or selective neuronal loss as an important cause of dementia. Lancet 1: 11–14, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Corkin S, Davis K, Growdon J, et al. (eds): Aging, Vol. 19: Alzheimer’s disease: A Report of Progress in Research, New York, Raven Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  6. Corsellis JAN, Evans PH: The relation of stenosis of the extracranial cerebral arteries to mental disorder and cerebral degeneration in old age, in Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of Neuropathology. The Hague, The Netherlands, Mouton & Co, 1965, p 546.Google Scholar
  7. Crapper DR, De Boni U: Etiological factors in dementia, in Abstracts: Satellite Meeting on Aging of the Brain and Dementia, International Society for Neurochemistry. Abano Terme, Italy, FIDIA Research Labs, 1979.Google Scholar
  8. Crapper DR, Krishnan SS, Quittkat S: Aluminum, neurofibrillary degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease. Brain 99: 67–80, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. DeLeon MJ, Ferris SH, George AE, et al.: Computed tomography evaluation of brain behavior relationship in senile dementia of the Alzheimer’s type. Neurobiol Aging 1:69–79, 1980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Engel GL, Romano J: Delirium, a syndrome of cerebral insufficiency, J Chronic Dis 9: 26077, 1959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fisch M, Goldfarb AI, Shahinian SP, et al.: Chronic brain syndrome in the community aged. Arch Gen Psychiatry 18: 739–745, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gambetti P, Velasco ME, Dahl P, et al.: Neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer’s disease: An immunohistochemical study, in Abstracts: Satellite Meeting on Aging of the Brain and Dementia, International Society for Neurochemistry. Abano Terme, Italy, FIDIA Research Labs, 1979.Google Scholar
  13. Goldstein K: The effects of brain damage on the personality. Psychiatry 15: 245–260, 1952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Heston LL: Alzheimer’s disease and senile dementia: Genetic relationship to Down’s syndrome and hematologic cancer, in Katzman R (ed): Congenital and Acquired Cognitive Disorders, New York, Raven Press, 1979, p 167.Google Scholar
  15. Kalchthaler T, Coccaro E, Lichtige S: Incidence of polypharmacy in a long term facility. J Am Geriatr Soc 25: 308–313, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kales A, Kales JD: Sleep disorders: Recent findings in the diagnosis and treatment of disturbed sleep. N Engl J Med 280: 487–499, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Katzman R: The prevalence and malignancy of Alzheimer’s disease: A major killer (editorial). Arch Neurol 33: 217–218, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kay DWK, Norris V, Post F: Prognosis in psychiatric disorders of the elderly: An attempt to define indications of early death and early recovery. J Ment Sci 102: 129–140, 1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kay DWK, Beamish P, Roth M: Old age mental disorders in Newcastle upon Tyne. Br J Psychiatry 110: 146–148, 1964.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lipowski ZJ: Delirium, clouding of consciousness and confusion. J Nery Ment Dis 145: 227–255, 1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lipowski ZJ: Delirium: Acute Brain Failure in Man. Springfield, Illinois, Charles C Thomas, 1980.Google Scholar
  22. Matsuyama H, Nakamura S: Senile change in the brain in the Japanese: Incidence of Alzheimer’s neurofibrillary change and senile plaques, in Katzman R, Terry RD, Bick KL (eds): Alzheimer’s Disease: Senile Dementia and Related Disorders. New York, Raven Press, 1978, p 287.Google Scholar
  23. Merskey H, Ball MJ, Blume WT, et al.: Relationship between psychological measurements and cerebral organic changes in Alzheimer’s disease. J Can Sci Neurol 7:45–49, 1980.Google Scholar
  24. Perl DP, Brody AR: Alzheimer’s disease: X-ray spectrometric evidence of aluminum accumulation in neurofibrillary tangle-bearing neurons. Science 208: 297–299, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rabin DL: Use of Medicine: A Review of Prescribed and Non prescribed Medicine Use. Washington, DC, US Public Health Service, 1972.Google Scholar
  26. Roberts E: Potential therapies in aging and senile dementia, in Sinex EM, Merril CR (eds): Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome, and aging. Ann NY Acad Sci 396:165–178, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rossor MN: Dementia. Lancet, Nov. 27, 1982, pp 1200–1204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Salzman C: A primer on geriatric psychopharmacology. Am J Psychiatry 139: 67–74, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Salzman C, van der Kolk BA: Psychotropic drug prescriptions to elderly patients in a general hospital. J Am Geriatr Soc 28: 18–22, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Schneck MK, Reisberg B, Ferris SH: An overview of current concepts of Alzheimer’s disease. Am J Psychiatry 139: 165–173, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Sims NR, Bowen DM, Smith CCT, et al.: Glucose metabolism and acetylcholine synthesis in relation to neuronal activity in Alzheimer’s disease. Lancet 1:333–335, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sinex EM, Merril CR (eds): Alzheimer’s disease. Down’s syndrome, and aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci 396, 1982.Google Scholar
  33. Sinex EM, Myers RH: Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome, and aging: The genetic approach, in Sinex EM, Merril CR (eds): Alzheimer’s disease, Down’s syndrome, and aging. Ann NY Acad Sci 393:3–13, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Solomon F, White CC, Parron DL, et al.: Sleeping pills, insomnia and medical practice. N Engl J Med 300:803–808, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Spillane JA, White P, Goodhart MJ, et al.: Selective vulnerability of neurons in organic dementia. Nature (London) 1:11–14, 1977.Google Scholar
  36. Terry RD: Dementia: A brief review. Arch Neurol 33: 1–4, 1976a.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Terry RD: Neurofibrillary tangles of paired helical filaments. J Neurol Sci 27: 173–181, 1976b.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Terry RD, Gonatas NK, Weiss M: Ultrastructural studies in Alzheimer’s presenile dementia. Am J Pathol 44: 269–297, 1964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Terry RD, Fitzgerald C, Peck A, et al.: Cortical cell counts in senile dementia (abstract). J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 36:633, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Thompson TL II, Moran MG, Nies AS: Psychotropic drug use in the elderly. N Engl J Med 308: 134–138, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Thompson TL II, Moran MG, Nies AS: Psychotropic drug use in the elderly. N Engl J Med 308: 194–199, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Titchener JL, Zwerling I, Gottschalk L, et al.: Psychosis in surgical patients. Surg Gynecol Obstet 101:59–65, 1956.Google Scholar
  43. Mach JR, Hokama Y: Autoimmunity in chronic brain syndrome: A preliminary report. Arch Gen Psychiatry 23: 61–64, 1970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tomlinson BE, Blessed G, Roth M: Observations on the brains of nondemented old people. J Neurol Sci 7: 331–356, 1968.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tomlinson BE, Blessed G, Roth M: Observations on the brains of demented old people. J Neurol Sci 11: 205–242, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wisniewski HM, Soifer D: Neurofibrillary pathology: Current status and research perspectives. Mech Ageing Dev 9: 119–142, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Hoyle Leigh and Morton F. Reiser 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hoyle Leigh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Morton F. Reiser
    • 3
  1. 1.Yale University School of MedicineYale-New Haven HospitalNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Psychiatric Consultation-Liaison and Outpatient ServicesYale-New Haven HospitalNew HavenUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychiatryYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations